Топики по Английскому языку
Economy in Rassian
The Russian is reach in natural resources in the past few years the Russia
try to remove from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy. In
spite of decline Russia has various branches of industry, such as
metallurgical, automobile and chemical industry. Russia is divided on 11
economic regions such as: North, North west, central, volga, ural.. And
Asia :West Siberia, East Siberia, and the Far East. Russian s machine
building industry provides most of the Federations requirement for steam
boilers and turbines ,electric generators, grain combines, automobiles and
electric locomotives and machine tools, instruments and automation
components. Important automobile factories are located in Moscow,
Н.Новгород, Ярославль Ижевск.Rus. textile industries are heavily
concentrated in the European sector especially in the central region.
Russian agriculture is not so developed. But some of the main crops grown
on the South are wheat, fruits, on the North are wheat, barley, oats,
vegetables. Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important branch of
R. agricultural. Forests is a very important branch for Russian. But in
Rus. can not use the resources more effectively. In Rus. the resources is
sold as the raw materials. It is necessary to employ of manufacturing. And
then we will live better.
The Russian Art.
The most important form of early Russian art was the icons. The word icon
means image in Greek. Icon is the religious pictures of Christ and Saints
on wooden panel. They decorated churches, mostly placed on the iconostasis.
In Russia the finest icons were produced from the midforteenth century. In
that time a specific national style icon painting was formed. Russian icon
painting reached the highest point of its achievement in the works of
Theothan Greek, Andrey Rublev and Dionissy in the mid-15 century. Andrey
Rublev is a Russian greatest iconpainter. In 1408 he was engaged on the
murals in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Vladimir when he also produced
his version of the icon of Vladimirs Virgin. And well known cuch icons as
Спас and Троица which was found in Vladimir. A.R.s icons is expressed a
distinct filling of harmony, deep spirituality, grace and the beauty of the
colors. Rs works is one of the greatest creations of medieval Russian
painting. Intimate [intimeit] намекать, Severe[sivie] строгий, Distinct
[distinkt] отличный, тчетливый. Creations [krieishn] создание, творение.
In the2th half of 19th century artists of the Wanderers group started
painting scenes of contemporary life. Vasiliy Perov, Ivan Kramskoy, Aleksey
Savrasov,Ivan Shishkin, Valentin Serov and Vasiliy Surikov were wanderers.
The works of Wonderes are displayed in the famous picture galleries: the
Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow,the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg. They
called themselves the Wanderers, because they wanted to realize their
ideals by taking wondering exibitions tthroughout the country. The most
clear represenative of Wonderers in my opinion was Vasiliy Surikov.[1848-
1916]. He was the first of the W. Hewas born in Krasnojarsk in Siberia.His
masterpiece was the Боярыня Морозова.  Its an enormous painting-both
in size and scale. A decorative surface rhythm and strong horizontals are
other eharacteirctics common to Russian art, both ancient and modern, and
like wise first recovered in the work of Surikov.
The English Art.
The 18th century , the Golden Age of British Art. The 18th century , the
great age of British painting. It was in this period that British art
attained a distinct national character. Hogarth was followed by a row of
illustrious painters: Thomas Gainsborough, with his lyrical landscapes,
funcy pictures and portraits, Reynolds, who painted charming society
portraits and became the first president of the Royal Academy.
William Hogarth was unquestionably one of the greatest of English artists
and a man of remarkably individual character and thought . It was his
achievement to give a comprehensive view of social life within the
framework of moralistic and framatic narrative.
His masterpiece of the famous series was Marriage a la Mode . This set of
pictures describes a marriage between the daughter of a rich man and a
young lord, the son of an old earl. The Girls father has brought a bag full
of money with him. Their children are together but apart: the young man is
watching himself in the glass; the girl is listening to a young Counsellor.
The pictures round the room help understund the situation. In one of the
pictures Madam sits listening to the young Consellor, whose portrait hangs
in her room. Other pictures in the series show My Lord who amuses himself
with a bad company. He returns home tipsy. Madam wastes her money at
auctions. The end is known. My Lord attacks the Counsellor, who kills him
and is executed. Moral: do not listen to counsellors; dont marry a man for
his rank, or a woman for her money; dont visit auctions unknown to your
husband; dont have bad friends. Otherwise you will be ruined.
From the 18 century portrait painting,eit
The most popular sources of entertainment and information are the press,
radio, tv, and movies. The press plays an important part in the life of
society. Millions of Americans in their free time read newspapers. The
English word ‘newspaper’ does not really. Describe everything that you can
read in this kind of publication. Newspapers include not only stories about
recent events (news), but opinions, advertising, and other non-news items.
The first American newspaper was called Public Occurrences Both Foreign and
Domestic. This paper was first published in Boston in 1690. Now there are
about 2,600 newspapers published in the USA. The New York Times, the
Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times are three of the most important
daily papers that describe foreign and domestic news. The radio does not
interfere with your activities. You can listen to the radio while doing
some work about the house, reading a book or driving a car. On the radio
one can hear music, plays, news, and different commentary and discussions
called ‘forums’. At a forum several authorities exchange views on social,
economic and political problems. A peculiar feature of the American radio
is soap opera. It is a sentimental serial drama that describes domestic
problems and which is for housewives. Soap opera is usually broadcast every
day. Most people find soap opera boring. There ate a lot of games on the
radio. They are called ‘panel games’. Radio brings also cultural and
educational programs. Many programs are made up of classical music.
Television is a ‘chewing gum for ears and eyes’. There are many serials on
TV in the USA. They appeared in the 1950s. TV games- attract a large
audience, too. During TV quiz programs TV viewers answer different
questions. There is a lot of education on television. For example, you can
take a TV course in history, political economy, management, banking and in
many other subjects, or learn a foreign language by TV. Educational TV
films and programs are shown in schools and colleges as a part of the