The Spirit of Scotland. Presentation theme.
The Lyceum of Information Technologies
The Spirit of Scotland
Written by: A. Semchenko
Tutor L.P. Rakitskaya
1. Scotland FOREVER……………………………………………………………….3
2. A Small Part of England?……………..…………………………………….......…4
3. Born Fighting……………………………………………………………………....5
4. Three Hundred Years\' War……………………………………………………......8
6. Covenant and
7. King over the
8. The Scottish Enlightenment and
9. Three literatures in
10. Trotting the
I\'d like to start with the fact that nowadays people have been travelling
all over the world and tourism has become an international business. Being
abroad people sometimes feel uncomfortable, confused or embarrassed
because of so called “culture shock”. It happens when they don\'t know the
history of the country, its culture, customs traditions people\'s lifestyle
and so on.
The subject of my work is “The Spirit of Scotland”. Of course, you have
heard of Hogmanay, haggis, Loch Ness Monster, Balmoral, the favourite
holiday home of the Royal family. These are just a few things Scotland is
famous for. Although it forms part of the UK, Scotland has district
national identity and character of its own.
Describe Scotland? Where do we start?! \"Land of the mountain and the
flood\" - the magnificent scenery will surely stir even the most sluggish
imagination, and though sometimes it can get wet, Edinburgh\'s rainfall is
no worse than that of New York or Rome, while the Moray coast is the
sunniest place in Britain.
Land of Castles. No one has ever managed to list all these, but in sheer
numbers and remarkable features they are on a par with anything Europe can
offer. Symbols of turbulent past, they represent a vast variety of ages,
layouts and styles - from huge citadels of Edinburgh and Stirling through
stout free-standing peels (tower-houses) to stately NeO-Gothic palaces.
Many are ruinous, not a few are still lived in by the same families that
built them and, needless to say, virtually all are haunted. .The Drummer
of Cortachy, the Green Lady of Crathes, General Tarn of the Binns and a
host of other apparitions mean as much to local lore as castles do to
Land of Cakes, i.e. baps, buns, bannocks, scones and shortbread, usually
taken with tons of jam, jelly and marmalade. The insatiable sweet tooth of
the natives, who also consume over 9 oz. of confectionery per person per
week, made the Guinness Book of Records.
Land of Football. Scots may have little to celebrate in the World Cup, but
the very first mention of the sport does occur in an act of a king of
theirs as early as 1424. At that period it already had to be banned by the
crown on pain of a fine, obviously because the populace neglected all
other occupations. Later the epidemic spread abroad, and even the English
Football League was launched by a McGregor. Besides, at least two more
games were invented in Scotland - golf (which, over there, can be enjoyed
by everyone, not just the better-off) and curling (now a winter Olympic
event, where they try to hit the target with a round polished piece of
granite, and help it along by rubbing the ice with brooms).
Whatever the nicknames, here is, beyond doubt, one of the most vivid and
distinctive cultures in the world. Is there another race with national
dress as easily recognizable and so much clannish pride that one can
guess a person\'s name by the pattern of his clothes? Is there a country
where a meal course is regularly and respectfully greeted with lines
written by her greatest bard, or where a staple drink is synonymous with
her own identity? And can anyone, fail to acknowledge the sight and sound
of a bagpipe, and readily associate it with its homeland?
A Small Part of England?
In the eyes of many Scotland is a mere extension of her bigger and richer
southern neighbour. There are few fallacies so complete! It is true that
by the Union of 1707 she has lost her parliament and was governed from
London ever since. But any serious comparison between the two makes one
wonder what they have in common, apart from sharing the same island. Their
landscapes, national characters, languages, churches, social, legal and
educational systems, architectural styles and even senses of humour - all
differ markedly. They are as much alike as mountain and valley, granite
and brick, whisky and gin, or thistle and rose.
This diversity was shaped by nature and history. Often called a small
country, Scotland, in fact, is about the size of Austria and twice as big
as Switzerland; on the patchy map of medieval Europe she was one of the
major kingdoms. But the number of her inhabitants was never large. Even
today it is just over 5 million, half the population of Greater London or
Moscow, and the bulk of it is concentrated in the Glasgow-Edinburgh belt,
while in the north-west you can roam for days with not a soul around.
There are also countless lakes, including Loch Lomond (Britain\'s biggest)
and Loch Ness with its elusive monster. Of the many rivers the longest is
the Tay, and some smaller ones achieved universal fame for a lot more
than salmon-fishing - the Clyde for its great shipbuilding tradition
(until World War I it supplied one-third of all British tonnage), the
Tweed for fine wool and knitwear produced on its banks, and the Spey for
the malt whisky distilleries about it.
Scottish mountains, although tallest in the British Isles, are
geologically very old and yield in height to the Alps and Pyrenees.
Nonetheless, the challenge they pose to human endeavour and the
admiration their stern grandeur excites in the spirit strongly
influenced national character. So did the unpredictably changeful
climate, that of a Northern country, but rather tempered by the sea. The
Highlands are often shrouded in snow into the summer months, while just
several dozen miles away the Gulf Stream allows palm trees and subtropic
plants to grow. Sometimes all seasons seem to come and go in a single
day. As a result, the Scottish temperament is one of barely reconcilable
contrasts, defined by a modern author as \"fiery imagination, incisive
intellect, tough stoicism and gentle affection\". It is a nature at once
daring and cautious (canny, to use a Scots word), thrifty and generous,
mild and aggressive. Warlike qualities, in particular, came to the fore —
and they had to be there.
The Scottish realm, goes the proverb, was born fighting. Since the days of
the Roman Empire, Caledonia, as she was known to the ancients, was under
constant threat of invasion. In the first centuries A.D. the Roman legions
led by able commanders like Agricola, and even the emperors in person,
strove to subdue the unruly northern tribes. Despite the seemingly
decisive defeat of their chieftain Calgacus (the first native recorded by
name), and the construction of colossal protective walls against them
across the whole country, Caledonia never became a province of Rome,
unlike southern Britain. In the end, the mighty conquerors were forced to
abandon their crumbling defences and withdrew from the island.
During the \"Dark Ages\" Caledonia was a melting pot of peoples vying for
supremacy. The most powerful adversaries of Rome were the Picts (the word
literally means \"painted folk\"). For hundreds of years they dominated
northern Britain from the Shetland Islands to the Firth of Forth. By the
eighth century their ruler Brude mac Bile and his heirs forged a kingdom
that foreshadowed a unified Scotland. Carved Pictish symbol-stones and
metalwork with graceful ornamentation are among the finest of that
period. Still, the written evidence is so scarce that their language is
undeciphered, and in many respects they remain a mystery. It is not even
clear whether these natives were full-fledged Celts or not. One striking
fact may indicate non-Indo-European origin. Pictish monarchs, unequally in
medieval Europe, inherited power through the female line.
In the south dwelt another group of tribes, there definitely the Celtic
Britons. As subjects of Rome for quite a while they were strongly
influenced by Roman culture, then formed several early kingdoms of their
own. The biggest of those, Strathclyde, stretched to the borders of Wales,
where the legendary British King Arthur is said to have reigned. Scotland
looms large in the Arthurian romance, and from times immemorial the
highest point of Edinburgh, a city founded in the land of the Britons, was
called Arthur\'s Seat. A less illustrious Briton named Aneirin composed the
epic poem \"Gododdin\", the oldest surviving literary work to come from
It was not, however, the indigenous Picts or Britons who eventually gave
their name to the country Jin the last years of the fifth century a band
of Irish Celts, called Scoti in Latin, crossed over from Ulster to
Kintyre peninsula under Fergus mac Ere. They established a settlement
which soon grew into the tribal kingdom of Dal Riata. From then on, it
coexisted with rival states, engaging in conflicts and mutual contacts.
Differences notwithstanding, the peoples of northern Britain shared a
similar social structure and way of life. A vital force which drew them
even closer together was Christianity. Of the multitude of obscure Celtic
churchmen several saintly preachers stand out - Ninian and Kentigern (or
Mungo), both British, and Columba, the Irish Scot who founded the famous
monastery at lona. The fervent labours of these \"Caledonian Apostles\" and
their followers brought about the conversion of the Picts. Curiously, St.
Patrick of Ireland was very probably born on Scottish soil, in
Strathclyde. As for the veneration of St. Andrew as Patron of Scotland,
his relics were presumably brought from Greece to the Pictish province of
Fife, where the see and city of St. Andrews were dedicated to him. His
diagonal cross (the saltire) became a national emblem in the thirteenth
Relations between all these tribes were far from friendly, and as if the
ethnic picture of northern Britain had not been complex enough already,
pagan Germanic invaders imposed themselves upon it -the Angles from the
south in the sixth century, the Scandinavians from the north in the eighth
and thereafter. The former occupied Lothian (the most fertile part of
Scotland around Edinburgh) and pushed further on, but were rebuffed by the
Picts at the battle of Dunnichen in 685. The fast-sailing Vikings, the
scourge of entire Europe, infested Scottish waters and shores in the first
place, as lying nearest to Norway, and soon seized and colonized the
islands of Shetland, Orkney and Hebrides as well as parts of mainland.
Joint resistance to common enemies, along with dynastic ties, trade and
cultural affinity caused the union of Scots and Picts under Kenneth mac
Alpin. In 843 he became sole ruler of the kingdom of Scotia, or in the
Celtic tongue, both then and now, Alba. The capital was moved to the
heart of the country, Dunkeld and Scone, where kings were enthroned on the
Stone of Destiny. Few of Kenneth\'s successors died in their beds, but they
did all they could to strengthen and augment their dominions. Royal
authority was often threatened from within, by their own kinsmen. One such
case gave birth to the tragedy whose title actors usually avoid for some
superstitious reason, referring to it as \"that Scottish play\". In 1040 a
northern governor named Macbeth rebelled against King Duncan, slew him and
usurped the crown, only to be overthrown by Malcolm, the rightful heir,
with English help. Strangely enough, medieval annals do not support the
image of a wicked tyrant; on his pilgrimage to Rome, for instance, Macbeth
\"scattered money, like seed, for the poor\".
The auspicious reign of David 1(1124-1153), who made himself master of
northern England as far as Lancashire, ushered in a new epoch. In the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries many burghs (i.e. towns), castles and
abbeys were built, as Anglo-French or Flemish knights and tradesmen
settled all over Scotland in significant numbers. In sharp contrast with
England, where the violent Norman conquest wiped out the Saxon elite, it
was a gradual and peaceful penetration, so that Celtic monarchy,
aristocracy and customs stayed very much alive. Feudalism and the clan
system evolved side by side at the same time and, far from being
antagonistic, complemented each other. The avowed differences between
clannish, pastoral. Gaelic-speaking Highlands and feudal, agricultural,
Scots-speaking Lowlands were never clear-cut or insuperable. Despite the
unlikely mixture, Pict, Briton, Scot, Angle and Norseman blended into one.
When the grim hour of trial came, the kingdom rallied and stood firm.
Three Hundred Years\' War
The long spell of peace and prosperity came to a close with the accidental
deaths of King Alexander III in 1286 and his only descendant, the
Norwegian princess Margaret (The Maid of Norway), four years later. Since
the ruling I house became extinct. Scottish magnates wisely appointed six
\"Guardians of the I Realm\" to govern it and protect its privileges, which
they did quite well. But [when the pretenders to the throne took up arms,
the Scots sought advice from their \"good neighbour!\', King Edward I of
England. The man who crushed Wales could not miss this chance to get rid
of the \"Celtic fringe\" altogether. He presided over the election of the
legitimate King of Scots, John Balliol, - then, as a token of gratitude,
received his homage and treated him as a humble vassal. As soon as the
Scots saw their liberties trampled, they concluded an alliance with
England\'s archenemy, France. The clash was imminent, and neither side
imagined how bitter and drawn out it would prove.
In 1296, with deceptive ease, Edward brushed away the raw recruits facing
him, penetrated deep into Scotland, deposed Balliol and removed the Stone
of Destiny, whereon every king of Scots was crowned, to London (despite
doubts of the trophy\'s authenticity, 700 years later it returned home).
Edward could have hardly worried that one William Wallace, a younger son
of an obscure knight, failed to swear fealty to him. Yet Wallace it was
who within a few months raised the Scottish banner again, undid all of
Edward\'s gains and on 11 September 1297 vanquished a strong force sent
against him at Stirling bridge - one of the first successes of foot
levies over heavy cavalry. The victor was then proclaimed Guardian of the
Realm. Even having suffered defeat by a vastly superior army under Edward
himself, Wallace refused to give up. Not until 1305 did the English manage
to take him - through betrayal by a Scot. Condemned for high treason
(though never a sworn subject of the English crown!), he was executed, and
the limbs of his dismembered body were sent to his compatriots.
By then, however, the Scottish cause passed into the hands of an even more
gifted leader, Robert Bruce. Of noble blood, and with his own right to the
throne, he knew there could be no king in a dependent lordship, and
pursued both personal and patriotic aims with relentless vigour. After his
coronation in 1306 the struggle cost him the lives or freedom of his whole
family, but he met defeat only » once - in his very first encounter.
Having subdued his opponents in Scotland, Bruce showed what he meant by
fighting \"with the longest stick that he had\". He made full use of his
country\'s terrain, manoeuvred swiftly, destroyed castles and smaller enemy
units and relied on \"scorched earth\" tactics until punitive expeditions
were starved into retreat. At last he gave the decisive pitched battle the
English hoped for. Near a small stream called Bannockburn on 24 June,
1314, with almost no horsemen to field, he ventured to attack a I host
over twice his strength, described as \"the greatest ever to proceed from
England\"! At the end of the day the English king barely escaped with his
life, and his army ceased to exist.
After Bannockburn the Scottish offensive began in earnest. Bruce expelled
the last enemy garrisons and unleashed a series of devastating campaigns
on English and English-held Irish territory (the term \"blackmail\"
initially meant tribute paid to the Scots). The diplomatic duel went on
with equal ardour. In 1320 Bruce\'s barons dispatched to the pope the
Declaration of Arbroath, an eloquent statement, perhaps the earliest in
Europe, of nascent nationhood: \"As long as but a hundred of us remain
alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It
is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting,
but for freedom alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself.
The English government had no choice but to acknowledge the state of
things, which it did by the solemn treaty of 1328. Robert Bruce had only
one year to live, but his quest to become the sovereign of the independent
and united country was fully accomplished.
During the minority of Bruce\'s son David II \"perpetual peace\", not
surprisingly, held for just a few years, and the English onslaught
resumed. King Edward HI, invited and assisted by some disinherited •
Scottish lords, won a notable victory at Halidon Hill and installed a
puppet ruler of Scotland. The Scots reverted to their proven guerrilla
strategy and little by little regained the initiative. When the great
Anglo-French war broke out in 1337, they staunchly supported their old
allies and fought by their side. Interrupted by short periods of truce,
border raids went on in Britain with varied success: the English were
defeated at Otterburn in 1388, but took their revenge at Homildon in 1402.
On the French front the Scots also took part in every major action. Thus,
when Joan of Arc raised the siege of Orleans, she was welcomed to the
city by its Scottish bishop, John Carmichael, and escorted by her loyal
Garde Ecossaise (their march tune, used by Robert Burns for his stirring
hymn \"Scots wha hae wi Wallace bled\", is still played in the French army,
Anglo-Scottish hostilities went on until the mid-sixteenth century. Still
sung today in many a ballad on both sides, they were replete with acts of
valour and treachery, good fortune and tragedy, as when the Scottish King
James II fell by the bursting of his own cannon, and the prophecy that a
dead man would win Roxburgh Castle came true. In 1513 on the field of
Flodden the fighting was so desperate that the king of Scots, heading the
charge, broke the enemy centre to within a spear-length of the English
commander - only to perish and lose the day with the flower of his
chivalry. One of the final chapters in the Three Hundred Years\' War is
known as \"Rough Wooing\", when Henry VIII of England forcibly attempted to
procure the infant Mary Queen of Scots as bride for his son — all in vain.
The outcome of this deadly struggle (for survival of a nation was at
stake) seems nothing less than a miracle, given the overwhelming odds.
Possessing at least five times more manpower and wealth, England also
employed mercenary units from overseas, and even some trusty Scottish
barons with their resources. Her armies virtually always had sound
advantages in experience, discipline, armament and sheer strength. Yet for
all the utmost exertions of successive English kings and generals, for the
immense loss of gold and blood, they only managed to acquire the border
town of Berwick-upon-Tweed (it changed hands fourteen times) and the Isle
of Man. The only source of Scotland\'s endurance lay in the spirit of her
defenders and her integrity. Patriotic heroes like Wallace and Bruce did
inspire, but even when these were exiled or confined the leaderless Scots
still fought, as they declared, \"for the Lion\", the heraldic symbol of
their realm. Knight and cleric, tradesman and peasant, Highlander and
Lowlander embraced the common cause.
And the ultimate irony was that the crown of England shortly fell to the
Scottish royal house of Stewart.
No part of Europe could stay away from the powerful social and spiritual
currents of approaching change. In the later Middle Ages ever louder calls
were heard against the hallowed order of the church. Martin Luther\'s
theses of 1517 announced a deep and lasting religious divide which is
Scotland\'s two archbishops (St. Andrews and Glasgow), eleven bishops and
several dozen abbots and priors may not have been opulent by higher
continental standards, but for a country with rather limited resources
they were endowed extremely well. For centuries the crown and secular
lords lavished the church, which took a fiercely patriotic stance in the
wars of independence, with estates, privileges and donations. As a result
it amassed, allegedly, over half of national wealth. The prelates often
acted as principal advisors to the government in supreme offices of state
and held sway in the cultural and moral sphere.
On the other hand, the corruption and venality of those expected to be
models of virtue were increasingly deplored and condemned, not least by
clergymen themselves. While a king\'s bastard sons, teenagers and even
infants, were ordained bishops and abbots to enjoy vast ecclesiastical
revenues, some parishes could not afford to repair their dilapidated
churches, and some priests did not know enough Latin to celebrate mass.
The clergy met with growing indignation of the faithful as well as envy
and greed of the gentry, yearning for its riches.
The choice lay between Catholic France and Protestant England. For a long
while the position of the former party, led by Cardinal Beaton and Marie
de Guise, mother and regent to young Mary, queen of Scots, looked
impregnable. The age-old alliance with France was sealed by the legal
introduction of a single Franco-Scottish citizenship and the wedding, in
1558, of the queen of Scots and the Dauphin who soon became king of
France. The English, for their part, toiled hard to arouse and exploit the
Protestant movement, and changed tactics from crude force to diplomatic
pressure, intrigue and bribery. A sudden outburst determined the course of
On 11 May, 1559 in St. John\'s Church at Perth a stern long-bearded priest
named John Knox, who had collaborated with Calvin at Geneva, preached a
sermon \"vehement against idolatry\". The inflamed mob set to desecrate the
altars and ravage religious houses all over the burgh. Within weeks the
scene recurred in many other places, and Protestant nobles styling
themselves Lords of the Congregation rose an armed rebellion with English
backing. In the midst of resolute measures against them the queen mother
died, and the Catholics lost her devoted leadership; their cause badly
lacked an exponent of Knox\'s calibre. The rebels concluded a treaty of
alliance with England and summoned the Reformation Parliament which
abolished papal supremacy, forbade the Latin mass and adopted \"The
Confession of Faith\", stating the Protestant doctrine.
The radical Calvinist approach meant that old hierarchy yielded to Kirk
(i.e. church) Sessions of elected elders and local Presbyteries, empowered
to ordain ministers. Catholics, of course, were not exterminated, but
became a minority restricted in civil and religious rights. The
Reformation had a profound, if contradictory, effect on Scottish life and
mentality. A new national system of education emerged with schools
provided in every parish. On the other hand, the development of secular
literature and fine arts, especially music and theatre, was stifled by
emphatic Calvinst demands for pious austerity. Most sculptured or painted
images and all stained glass windows were smashed by bigots.
It was this country, abruptly alienated from France and Rome in favour of
England, which the Catholic Mary, queen of Scots and dowager queen of
France, returned to govern in 1561. A widow at eighteen, famed for beauty
and charm, she also revealed admirable courage. For most of her short
reign she succeeded in keeping her contumacious nobles at bay, and pursued
the wise policy of religious toleration. All too soon, however, she gave
in to passions of the heart, which proved baneful. Both her subsequent
marriages — to Lord Darnley and, after his murder, to the Earl of
Bothwell, who was widely blamed for the deed, - were rash and disastrous.
General resentment and revolt followed, and Mary was forced to abdicate in
1567. She made her last fatal error by seeking refuge with her cousin
Elizabeth of England, whose very throne she claimed herself, since in the
eyes of Catholic Europe Elizabeth was illegitimate. For the remaining
nineteen years of her life Mary faded away in English custody and was
beheaded by orders of her cousin.
Mary\'s words \"In my end is my beginning\" came true. Her fate commands a
timeless fascination, and no woman in history surpasses her poetic and
artistic renown. The prophecy was also fulfilled in another sense. In 1603
Mary\'s son James VI, king of Scots, succeeded the murderess of his mother
to the English throne, and became James 1 of Great Britain.
The union of the crowns took shape. Naturally, the king and his court
removed to the luxuries of London, which, for Scotland, meant increasing
neglect, drain of talent and funds, and growth of English influences, but
in every respect she remained a country apart. On the whole, James showed
himself a skillful statesman, generally in control of his motley dominions
with little coercion or bloodhed.
Covenant and Revolution
In 1625 the ill-starred Charles I inherited the sceptre of his father. A
Scot by birth, if not by conviction, he promptly revealed autocratic
leanings and a firm belief in his divine rights. Charles\'s proud title,
\"Defender of the Faith\", inevitably raised the vital question - which one?
His English subjects were mostly Episcopalian, the Irish adhered to
Catholicism, the majority of Scots were strict Presbyterians, with other
confessions also represented in each case. The king\'s decision to enforce
a version of Anglican liturgy in Scotland plunged the British Isles into
chaos, strife and revolution.
In 1638 a multitude of Scots of every rank, enraged by \"popish\"
innovations, signed the manifesto known as the National Covenant. It
protested against the \"corruptions of the public government of the Kirk\"
as well as \"our poor country being made an English Province\", and pledged
to uphold \"the true religion\". Although the document promised to abide by
the king\'s authority, before long the Covenanters came to grips with the
Royalists. Needing money to deal with the insurrection, Charles turned to
his London parliament, which openly defied him. All parties (far from
unanimous within themselves) were now entangled in armed conflict and
tried to play off one of their adversaries against the other. At first the
English parliament, hard pressed by the king\'s supporters, appealed for
Scottish aid, and the Covenanters\' army helped to reverse the course of
events. Then the Marquis of Montrose rekindled Royalist hopes with a
string of triumphs in Scotland, but King Charles, beleaguered on all sides
in England, deemed it best to surrender to Scottish troops there. Covenant
generals appear to have sold Charles to their allies in return for arrears
due for invading England. At once they repented this vile and foolish act
and intervened again, this time on behalf of the captive sovereign, but it
was too late. In January 1649 Charles ascended the scaffold in London.
In Scotland the execution horrified even his most implacable opponents,
and his son Charles was immediately proclaimed king. National feeling
assumed a familiar anti-English tone. But all the forces raised and
battles given were lost to the formidable might of General Cromwell, who
headed the English Republic and its newly-reformed army. Despite a
stubborn and protracted resistance, in the 1 650s Scotland, for the first
time ever, was annexed by a foreign power, \"as when the poor bird is
embodied into the hawk that hath eaten it up\". However, the rightful king,
the Scottish parliament and thousands of exiles never recognized
Cromwell\'s Commonwealth, and English occupation of Scotland lasted for
just a few years. In 1660 Charles II returned to punish the rebels and
restore all government institutions. Apart from the resolute suppression
of extreme Covenanters, his long reign was fairly uneventful, especially
by comparison with the troubled times before and after it.
In the person of his brother, James II (VII of Scotland), Britain acquired
a Catholic monarch, something which has long been forgotten. James\'s
earnest and understandable efforts to secure religious toleration and
equality for those who professed his faith resulted in wide Protestant
opposition. After just three years in power, faced with the armed
intrusion of his own son-in-law, the Dutch prince William of Orange, James
lost heart and fled to France. The Scottish estates followed English
example by declaring that he forfeited the crown, which they bestowed on
William and his wife Mary.
King over the Water
The so-called \"Glorious Revolution\" of 1688-9 was little more than a
Protestant coup, bringing few laurels to its perpetrators. It gave birth
to a wide and deep-rooted movement in support of the exiled Stuart
dynasty, known as Jacobitism (from the Latin Jacobus, meaning James).
No sooner had William of Orange been proclaimed king than John Graham,
Viscount Dundee, mustered the clansmen loyal to the Stuarts and marched
against William\'s troops. In the country divided between the two claimants
it was no longer Scot versus Englishman, but usually Scot versus Scot. In
the mountain pass of Killiecrankie, as a wild Highland charge downhill put
the enemy to flight, Dundee received a mortal wound and expired in the
very moment of victory. Without his vigorous command the first Jacobite
attempt petered out.
The London government counterattacked, and its measures hardly endeared it
to the subjects. In February, 1692, on the pretext that the elderly
chieftain of the Glencoe MacDonalds gave the oath of loyalty a few days
later than ordered, a company of Campbells billeted and entertained by
them, fell on their hosts and slaughtered them. It was not so much the
scale of the massacre (38 people perished) as the flagrant breach of
hospitality that appalled everyone. King William and his senior officials,
who issued express instructions to the killers, managed to wash their
William died childless and was succeeded by his sister-in-law, Anne
Stuart. Since none of her many children survived, the English parliament
offered the crown to the Protestant Electors of Hanover in Germany to the
detriment of the rightful heir, James Francis Stuart, and 57 other
European princes with a better claim to the crowns of Britain. It was now
vital for English authorities to ensure that \"the backdoor be shut against
the attempts of the Pretender\", i.e. to exclude any possibility of Stuart
restoration in Scotland. Clearly, this could be attained only by disposing
of Scottish independence.
\"What foreign arms could never quell, by civil rage
and rancour fell\". In 1707 with the help of the pro-English (or \"Court\")
party, by combined means of intimidation and promises of financial and
trading benefits, the Scottish parliament was persuaded to accept the
Treaty of Union and abolish itself. \"There\'s ane end of ane auld sang (old
song)!\", came a nostalgic comment from the Scottish chancellor as he
signed the document. Thereby the realm of Scots ceased to exist (as did
the realm of England) to be incorporated in a United Kingdom of Great
Britain with a single ruler, parliament, citizenship, currency and flag.
Under the terms of the Union Scotland retained her Presbyterian Kirk, her
legal system and some other privileges, but her representatives in the
joint legislature in London were hopelessly outnumbered by over ten to
one. The vast majority of Scots had no say in the transaction, which from
the very outset became widely resented, even by several of its signers.
Jacobite feelings flared up all over the British Isles, and Stuart agents
shuttled from one European capital to another. Their slogan appeared on
sword blades: \"Scotland - No Union - Long live King James VIII!\"
James himself, saluted by many as \"King over the Water\", approached the
coast of Scotland in 1708 with a French squadron, only to withdraw before
the English fleet. Success seemed certain seven years later, after the
coronation in London of George of Hanover, who could not speak a word of
English and was generally mocked as a usurper and \"a wee German lairdie
(petty German baron)\". In 1715 the greatest Jacobite rising began
throughout Scotland and in northern England. An army far in excess of
Hanoverian troops was recruited, while important Scottish burghs,
including Aberdeen, Dundee and Perth, gladly opened their gates to the
insurgents. But they were plagued by the indecision of their leader, Lord
Mar, as well as sheer bad luck. Besides, many Scots preferred to sit on
the fence or rise for King George; old rivalries often induced some clans
to oppose a cause for the simple reason that others have joined it. After
much waste of time the one major battle of Sheriffmuir ended in stalemate,
and James Stuart, the titular sovereign, arrived from France too late to
regain his kingdom. A small-scale Jacobite campaign of 1719 also failed
notwithstanding Spanish assistance, but another opportunity still lay
In July, 1745 a French frigate landed on the Scottish islet of Eriskay a
handsome young man of noble mien with only seven companions. Charles
Edward Stuart, affectionately called by his followers \"Bonnie Prince
Charlie\", boldly affirmed his father\'s right to the throne despite the
doubts of local chieftains. In a matter of weeks he raised the Jacobite
banner at Glenfinnan, assembled several thousand men, captured Perth and
entered Edinburgh, where he had James VIII and III proclaimed king again.
Having routed General Cope, the Hanoverian commander, at Prestonpans,
Charles found himself master of Scotland.
He craved for more. In November, at the head of his Highlanders, he
crossed the English border. Carlisle surrendered, as did Preston,
Manchester and Derby. The elated Charles stood a mere hundred miles from
London, where panic was such that George II and his dignitaries considered
evacuation. At this moment, however, his staff insisted on returning to
Scotland, a decision still hotly debated by historians. True, the expected
reinforcements of English Jacobites or French descents did not come, and
three English corps, each one bigger than his own, opposed the Prince. But
these were out-manoeuvred, and the whole course of the campaign showed
that the best chance of success lay in audacity, which took the Scots so
Although Charles won another encounter with the Hanoverians at Falkirk, he
was finally cornered, and on 16 April, 1746 the last battle fought on
British soil, at Culloden, sealed the fate of Scotland. On flat ground,
with little cavalry and no artillery, the Jacobites could not prevail
against well-drilled government troops, a good number of which were
Scottish, too. Hundreds of braves fell on the spot, the wounded were
mercilessly butchered and prisoners shot, hanged or sent to American
plantations. The victors employed every possible measure to humble the
spirit and eradicate the customs of the Gaelic Highlands. Even tartan
garment and bagpipes were banned for a long spell.
This was the end of one of the most marvellous adventures in European
history. Prince Charles survived Culloden, and despite the enormous sum of
-L-30,000 on his head, not one of the people who could well blame him for
their ruin thought of getting the reward during half a year of his
wanderings in the Highlands. His cause died with him in France, but in one
respect it did triumph — dozens of Jacobite ballads are fondly sung in
Scotland today, but nobody would recall a single Hanoverian one.
The Scottish Enlightenment and Beyond
The Jacobite period and its aftermath was not all bloodshed and intrigue.
An efficient school system and four universities in a nation of just over
a million people ensured one of the highest literacy rates and levels of
education in the world. In the Middle Ages Scotland already produced
several scholars of renown, such as \"The Subtle Doctor\" John Duns Scotus,
recently beatified by the Vatican, or John Napier who discovered
logarithms. And then, from the early eighteenth century into the
nineteenth unfolded the incredibly creative trends of the Scottish
Enlightenment. David Hume, one of the pillars of modem philosophy,
observed in 1757: \"It is admirable how many men of genius this country
produces at present... At a time when we have lost our princes, our
parliaments, our independent government, even the presence of our chief
nobility... is it not strange, that in these circumstances we should
really be the people most distinguished for Literature in Europe?\" It
sounds as a vaunt, but there is something to sustain it.
The term \"Literature\" carried a much wider, encyclopedic sense then,
comprising all recorded knowledge or learning, and, indeed, a bright
constellation of Scots excelled in various branches of science and art. No
rigid dogmas were held by all of them, but many shared a profound interest
for practical improvements and social benefits of their enquiries,
stressing the links between different forms of human activity and studying
the principles which underlay them.
Apart from Hume himself, the leading philosophers of the age, whose
influence stretched from America to Russia, were Adam Smith, the father of
political economy, Thomas Reid, head of the \"common sense\" school, and
Adam Ferguson, a pioneer of sociology. Other scientists included the
eminent historian William Robertson; William Cullen, who established
chemistry in its own right; Joseph Black, the investigator of latent and
specific heat; James Hutton, whose \"Theory of the Earth\" gave birth to
modern geology; and the famous medical dynasties of Hunter and Monro.
Learned societies and journals blossomed, and, as a natural offshoot, the
\"Encyclopaedia Britannica\" started in Edinburgh in 1768.
Practice went alongside theory. James Watt revolutionized industry with
his steam engine; William Symington devised the first practical steamboat
(\"Charlotte Dundas\", 1802); Charles Mackintosh patented the water-proofing
process; James Neilson introduced the hot blast for smelting iron; Robert
Brown first recognized the cell nucleus and Brownian motion; John MacAdam
perfected the method of road-construction and Thomas Telford, nicknamed
\"Colossus of Roads\", became the leading civil engineer of his time. Later
on Scots made decisive contributions to the development of electricity,
magnetism, thermodynamics and, eventually, telephone, television and
In another sphere, that of travel, the names of African explorers James
Bruce, Mungo Park and David Livingstone would be familiar to geographers.
Alexander Mackenzie traversed North America for the first time, and a
succession of dauntless polar travellers followed. Captain James Cook
himself was a Scot on his father\'s side. All of them left valuable and
fascinating accounts of their discoveries.
In visual arts Scottish achievements are rather less spectacular, but some
figures cannot be overlooked. In architecture Robert Adam and Charles
Cameron are unsurpassed by any eighteenth-century master; the former built
in Britain, the latter in Russia, but both concealed exquisite and
fanciful decorations behind imposing classical facades. Allan Ramsay and
Henry Raeburn led the way in British portrait painting. Subsequently many
gifted Scots took part in various artistic movements, notably the Celtic
Revival, while Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868- 1928) emerged as one of
the prophets of European Art Nouveau.
Three literatures in one
Scottish literature is a remarkable phenomenon if only because it makes
use of three languages: Scotish, Gaelic and English, let alone a good
number of medieval writings in Latin. The first, a Germanic tongue
deriving from old Anglo-Saxon, absorbed many Norse, Gaelic, French and
Dutch elements, and by the fourteenth century markedly diverged from its
southern neighbour. The notion (officially enforced after the Union of
1707) that it is just a sort of \"bad\" or corrupt English is simply
incorrect. Scotish has as long a pedigree as English, and in many of its
forms is closer to the common ancestor. It enjoyed a national and
government status until King James VI with his court departed for London
in 1603, and expressed itself in an outstanding literary tradition,
especially poetry. Scotish came of age by the 1370s, when John Barbour
composed \"The Bruce\", an epic poem, historical chronicle, biography of
King Robert I and chivalous romance all in one. Mention must be made of
other celebrated medieval \"makars\" (authors): King James I, Blind Harry,
Robert Henryson, William Dunbar, Gavin Douglas (translator of Virgil\'s
\"Aeneid\" into Scots), David Lindsay and Alexander Mongomerie.
After a certain lull came the wonderful eighteenth-century resurgence of
Scots in the verse of the prolific native school crowned by Robert Burns.
No one could aspire to the fame of national poet with more justice, not so
much because of his humble origin and farmer\'s toil, but because he was
and is dear to any compatriot, whether a penny less tramp or a mighty
lord. He was equally skillful in English and Scotish, though always
preferred the latter. Many of his poems spring from folk ballads, and to
this day are sung all over the world. He expressed the very soul of
Scotland with such sincerity and depth that their names are inseparable.
Burns is well-known and loved in many lands outside Scotland, but perhaps
nowhere as much as in Russia. Ivan Turgenev admired him as \"a clear
fountain of poetry\".
Owing to its rich legacy, expressive powers and modern works in every
genre, Scotish is now firmly back on British literary scene. In the
recent translation of the New Testament, with typical Caledonian humour,
only one character is speaking English - the devil.
Gaelic tradition in Scotland dates back to first centuries A.D. It shares
with Scots the thankless fate of a native language encroached upon by an
aggressive foreign idiom, and often artficially suppressed, but their
history is as different as Celtic speech is from Germanic. Scottish
Gaelic, naturally, owes much to its sources in Ireland, although by
the sixteenth century the two dialects could be told apart. Oral
communication of lore has always been paramount in the Highlands and
Western Isles even to the present, and hereditary dynasties of bards and
story-tellers thrived at the courts of MacDonald, Campbell or MacLeod
chiefs. One such amazing line, the MacMhuirichs, lasted over eighteen
generations. In time many legends, chronicles, genealogies, etc. were
written down and printed. Another crucial mark of Gaelic literature is
its inextricable link with music and singing, and some of the loftiest
songs appeared in the Jacobite period. Government \"pacification\" of
the Highlands after 1746, eviction of local landholders and their
exodus abroad caused a dramatic decline of Gaelic culture. Today less than
100,000 people can read and write Gaelic, although of late there are some
encouraging signs of recovery.
Ironically, nothing drew more attention to Gaelic heritage than the
English texts of James Macpherson, published in the early 1760s as
translations of the ancient Celtic bard Ossian, son of Fingal. Macpherson,
himself a Gael, toured the Highlands and collected tales and verse there,
although he used the material rather freely and invented much of it. His
success, however, was tremendous. Ossianic poems appeared in all major
European countries, inviting a host of imitations and comparisons with
Homer and Dante.
English-language works of Scottish origin made a late appearance, but
appealed to a wide audience, and several authors proved in no way inferior
to their English colleagues. James Thomson wrote the highly acclaimed
sentimental poem \"The Seasons\" as well as the anthem \"Rule, Britannia\";
Tobias Smollett produced a string of brilliantly grotesque novels
including \"The Adventures of Roderick Random\" and \"The Expedition of
Humphry Clinker\", while James Boswell\'s \"Life of Samuel Johnson\" became
one of the most celebrated biographies ever penned in English.
But arguably the greatest Scottish writer, both in terms of versatility
and impact at home and abroad, is Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832). Fostered
by native lore, he gathered and issued old ballads in his \"Minstrelsy of
the Scottish Border\", composed sublime poetry of his own (\"Lay of the Last
Minstrel\", \"Lady of the Lake\") and wrote numerous dramatic, historical and
antiquarian works. He is best remembered as one of the titans of the
Romantic movement, who almost single-handedly established the form of
historical novel and, according to some, the short story as well. Much of
the action in Scott\'s verse and prose (\"Waverley\", \"Old Mortality\", \"Rob
Roy\", \"Heart of Midlothian\", \"Redgauntlet\", etc.) is set in Scotland, and
he relied on his perfect knowledge of the Scotish tongue to portray his
colourful characters by colloquial means.
Other examples of native literary talent range from the eccentric but
awesome nineteenth-century sage Thomas Carlyle through Robert Louis
Stevenson (who also has many fine poems in Scots) to James Barrie and Alan
Milne, whose serious essays were overshadowed by the youthful glory of
Peter Pan and Winnie the Pooh.
Trotting the Globe
An old joke, \"Rats, lice and Scots: you find them the whole world over\",
is well founded in fact. Strong Scottish detachments fought on the French
side in the Hundred Years\' War (an astonishing figure of over 15,000 men
about the year 1420). In the mid-sixteenth century Scots made up almost
14% of the population of the Danish port Elsinore, while by 1650 their
community in Poland is said to have numbered 30,000. Few corners of Europe
were not frequented by Scots, for whom the continent soon became too
Predictably, they played an outstanding part in the making and running of
the British Empire and the states that succeeded it in America, Africa,
India, Australia and other parts. \"Every line of strength in American
history is colored with Scottish blood\" was the remark of President
Woodrow Wilson. But their reach extended far beyond the English-speaking
world. \"Go into whatever country you will, you will always find Scotsmen.
They penetrate into every climate, you meet them in all the various
departments of travellers, soldiers, merchants, adventurers, domestics...
If any dangerous and difficult enterprise has been undertaken, any
uncommon proofs given of patience or activity, any new countries visited
and improved, a Scotsman has borne some share in the performance\" - no
self-applied boast, but a comment from an English witness.
In the early nineteenth century Lord Cochrane commanded the navies of
Chile and Brazil. Somewhat later Thomas Blake Glover from Fraserburgh
helped to reform Japan along Western lines, and became the first alien to
be decorated by the mikado. In Russia the Scottish record includes the
earliest waterworks in the Moscow Kremlin, first observatory and first
steamship, among other industrial, military and scientific innovations,
while Gordons, Braces, Greigs, Barclays and Lermontovs (whose forebears
came from Dairsie in Fife) have done honour to their ancestral land and
their adopted country. Volumes can be (and have already been) dedicated to
the theme of Scottish impact abroad. Scots integrated with incredible ease
into almost any environment, but even if they left home with nothing but
an edition of Burns, they could never forget where they came from.
\"Scotland forever!\" was the battle cry of Scottish regiments serving
overseas -and the thought of many a peaceful settler on distant shores.
In the end I\'d like to show the main obvious differences between the
Englishman and the Scot? The Scotsman is more self-conscious about his
nationality (and knows as a general rule, much more about his national
history) than the Englishman; he is much less self-conscious about his
social class, about the school and university he went to.
He is more stiff and reserved at a first meeting than the Englishman but
also, when he feels he has made a friend, more frank in the expression of
opinion and in the display both of anger and sentiment. He is more
argumentative, and less tactful than the Englishman; he has often a
heartier or a noisier sense of fun but perhaps a less subtle sense of
humour. His sense of the family is more extended and tenacious than is
common among modern Englishmen, and usually he keeps in touch with uncles,
aunts, and cousins scattered not only over Scotland itself but in London
and in the Dominions, particularly Canada and Australia. The quality of
life which Scotsmen miss abroad and for which they seek each other out, is
certain homeliness. Few Scots ever lose their narative accent. Accent and
manner are, for Scots abroad, badges of mutual recognition, and draw
exiled Scots everywhere together for old school, old university and for
the celebration of Burns\'s Night. The Scotsman\'s idea of a good time is
one had by men together while the women are safely at home looking after
the children. And thus the public house, for instance, in Scotland is not
as in England a family institution, but rather (as in Ireland) a place
where men get away from their families.
Digest, - №1/1996.
English, - издательский дом «Первое сентября» №№1, 8, 17/1995, №12/1999
Kirill\'s and Mephody\'s big encyclopedia (computer encyclopedia).
VisitScotland Magazine-guidebook - 2004
Who is Who in Britain, - Москва, «Просвещение», 2000