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Шпаргалки по английскому языку

Шпаргалки по английскому языку

Learning foreign languages. Somebody said: "English is a language that came

from nowhere to conquer the world…" These words are really true and I will

prove it. Foreign languages are absolutely necessary for us nowadays

because of our growing international contacts with all the countries of the


There are many reasons why we begin the study of a foreign language. One of

them is to be able to communicate with other people who use this language.

We may be planning to travel in one or two countries where the language is

spoken. If we know the language of a foreign country, we can talk to its

people and understand what they are saying to us. If we are working in any

branch of science, we naturally wish to read scientific books and magazines

in other languages. Making business nowadays also means knowing foreign

languages because of the growing international business contacts. Knowing

foreign languages helps people of different countries to develop mutual

friendship and understanding. We can also make our intellectual and

cultural horizons wider through contacts with people of another culture. It

is also very interesting to read foreign literature in the original. We can

also read foreign newspapers and magazines and to understand films in

foreign languages without any help.

Learning foreign languages is compulsory in all the secondary and higher

schools in our country. English is a very popular language. People use it

in many parts of the world and there is a lot of business correspondence

and literature in English.

I think, it is very important to know at least one foreign language —

English, German, French, Spanish or any other one. In conclusion I would

like to say that now there are more than 60 countries that speak English as

the dominant or official language. My purpose is to show you why the

English is a world language. The present day world status of English is the

result of two factors: the expansion of British colonial power, which

peaked towards the end of the 19th century, and the emergence of the US as

the leading economic power of the 20th century. English is the chief

language of international business and academic conferences, and the

leading language of international tourism. English is the main language of

popular music, advertising, home computers and video games. Most of the

scientific, technological and academic information in the world is

expressed in English.

Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. It educates a

person, enriches his intellect. Books help to mould a person's character,

from his moral values. Besides, books bring pleasure and delight. It's a

wonderful way of spending spare time. Sometimes we read the same book again

and again. Thanks to books we learn to express our thoughts and feelings

more exactly. The book is faithful and understanding friend. It can be put

aside and taken up again at any moment. There are books which have been our

favorites since childhood. People are fond of reading different kinds of

books. Some people enjoy reading detective stories, adventure stories,

novels, biographies, other prefer classics. Fairy tales are enjoyed and

read by children, books about adventures and journeys are enjoyed by those

who are fond of traveling. Legends and myths are read by those who are fond

of history. Some people developed much time to reading books and reading

becomes their free time occupation, their passion. Through out the

centuries books had an enormous influence on the minds and hearts of

people. Books bind together ages, personalities. Thanks to books we can

talk to people who lived in different countries and ages. Through reading

books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. The book is the surest

way to bring nations together. It helps people achieve understanding,

trust, cooperation and friendship. Books awaken the young reader's

imagination. They develop literary taste, arouse interest and curiosity,

the reader's laugher as well as his tears. They teach the readers to be

truthful, friendly, honest decisive, conscientious, frank, firm, fair and


People reflect their life in art. Real, live art appeals to the heart and

mind of man, to his feelings and ideals and it proclaims life. Art is

truthful only when it serves life, only when the artist hopes to arouse a

warm response in the heart of man. Art belongs to the people. The history

of art from the Renaissance to our days confirms this. There are nearly a

thousand museums in Russia, many of them being world famous. The largest

collection of Russian art is the Tretyakov Art Gallery in Moscow. It is a

real treasury of canvases by prominent Russian painters. It contains

priceless collections of icons, 17-20th centuries paintings and sculptures

and contemporary Russian painting and sculpture. One of the largest and

most remarkable museums of the world is the Hermitage, more than three

hundred halls housing its exhibitions of articles of the greatest artistic

value. The museum's collections now comprise work of various periods in the

development of art, from ancient times up to the present day. Famous

painters from different countries are represented there. The Russian Museum

in St. Petersburg is another picture gallery which contains the richest

collection of Russian paintings of 18-19th centuries and the best

collection of Russian sculpture. In the Pushkin Museum of the Fine Arts in

Moscow the art of the Ancient East and Western Europe is represented. This

museum possesses a unique collection of copies of the finest sculptures of

the old time. It is in this museum that many famous foreign expositions of

the Fine Arts are displayed almost every year. Music plays an important

role in our life. It was born together with people. It reflects the world

around us by means of combination of tones, rhythm and melody. Music can

help to relax and to have a rest; it provokes our deepest emotions and

fills our hearts with kindness, joy and happiness. First musicians used

primitive instruments: whistles, pipes, and drums. Then harps, bagpipes,

flutes, and horns appeared. Nowadays modern musicians use various

instruments: violin, guitars, saxophones, trumpets and pianos. Some people

are fond of classical music, waltz, marches, country-dance, organ, folk,

spiritual music. Others are interested in modern music: jazz, blues, rock,

hard rock, and rap, rave. I like rap music. I admire it. It enriches me. I

hate hard rock. I think it is annoying. I don't understand it. I find it

noisy and dreadful. I am impressed by classical music. When I am in bad

mood I listen to classical music. When I have free time I like to listen to

romantic music. My friends share my tastes in music. I like having

background music while I'm working. I often go to concerts, buy records,

cassettes and CD's. People are fond of traveling. They spend their

holidays traveling. They travel to see other countries and continents, to

learn a lot about people's traditions, to enjoy picturesque places. It is

interesting for them to discover new things, different ways of life, to

meet different people, to try different food. Those who live in the country

like to find themselves in large cities with their shops, cinemas, crowds

of people. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the

mountains with nothing to do but walking and bathing, laying in the sun.

Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and take pictures

of everything that interests them - beautiful views of waterfalls, forests,

unusual plants and animals. These photos will remind them of the happy time

of holiday. These are many ways of traveling - by train, by plain, by ship,

on foot. Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling

by plain. And not because it is very comfortable. It is exciting. I also

like traveling by train. I've traveled this way a lot. When you are in the

train you can see the beauty of nature. I envy the tourists because I think

that they study geography traveling and visiting different parts of the

world. They can tell you many things which you didn't know before. They are

interesting people from whom you can learn much new for yourself. Any kind

of travel helps you to understand many things that you can never see or

learn at home. As for me I'd like to have a coach tour to some foreign

country. Coach tours are planned and I'll have a chance to do a lot of

sightseeings and have a good rest at the same time. |My future profession.

The end of school is the start of our independent life and the beginning of

the most serious examination we have passed. In order to do well at this

examination it is necessary to choose the right road in life which will

help us to do our best and to work for the benefit of our country. Many

roads will open before us: technical schools, institutes and universities.

Everybody will have a chance to develop and use knowledge and education

received during the school years. There are a lot of different trades and

professions, and each one must choose the occupation in which he or she can

best develop one's own talent and abilities. Our society needs well-

educated people. Nowadays the profession of an economist has become one the

most useful, modern and interesting. That is because our country is moving

towards market economy and different forms of property are being

established. There is a place for an economist at every plant and factory.

An economist exercises different functions. He or she can determine the

structure of an enterprise and calculate costs as well as probable profits.

An economist analyses the condition of the market and prospects for its

development in the future. His or her practical use of electronic computers

is a must. The activities of an economist at an enterprise range from

bookkeeper control the financial state of an enterprise and perform a lot

of useful calculations. A manager is an actual administrator. Having a good

command of the economic situation in the region and the demands of the

market a person with an economist's diploma may establish his own business,

or he may become a partner of a joint venture. It is very important for an

economist to know a foreign language, especially English. That is because

contracts between our country and many countries of the world are becoming

wider with every coming day. Every economist has a chance to go abroad or

to deal with foreign businessmen coming to our country. But to become a

good economist one must work hard and get not only theoretical knowledge

but also great practical skills.

My school. I had just left school and I would like to tell you a few words

about it. I went to school in 1988. This school I studied in is a three

stored building. When you enter the school yard you can see poplar trees

and beautiful flowers. To the right of the school building there is a big

playground. When the weather was fine we had our classes in physical

training there. When you enter the school you come in to a large hall and a

cloak-room, there we left our coats, rain-coats and jackets. On the ground

floor where is also a school library and a gym. The class rooms, the

assembly hall, the teachers room and the canteen are on the upper floors.

On the walls of the corridors you can see the portraits of famous writers,

poets, scientists and our school wall newspaper. It is done by the pupils

of our school and has a lot of interesting things to read. I learned

different subjects at school: Russian, English, math, physics, chemistry,

geography, history and some others. My favorite subjects were Russian and

English. I also liked literature. I was good at these subjects and usually

got good marks in them. I worked hard at English lessons: read and

translated texts, made up dialogues, did a lot of ex, but best of all I

liked different tests, I was fond of grammar. But I was poor in chemistry.

I always failed to learn formulas and terms properly. I liked my class,

everybody was so friendly easy to get along with. I was on good terms with

my class maids and we often spend our free time together.

Much was done by people to reach the present state of human development. It

is necessary to say that great contribution to the development of the world

science and culture, literature, music and painting was made by the Russian

people. The names of Russian scientists and writers, poets, composers and

painters are world-famous-Pushkin, Lermontov, Chehov, Levitan. This chain

can be endless. It is almost impossible to name a branch of science in the

development of which the Russian scientists haven't played the greatest

role. Lomonosov, the founder of the Moscow University was an outstanding

innovator both in the humanities and sciences. Mendeleev's greatest

discovery was the Periodic System of Elements. Popov invented radio.

Sechenov and Pavlov were the world's greatest physiologists. Russia is

rightly called the mother of aviation and cosmounatics. Names of

Tsiolkovsky, Korolov and Gagarin are symbols of new space era. People in

many countries admire paintings, portraits and landscapes Surikov, Levitan,

Repin works of our Russian writes and poets are translated into many

languages. I want to tell about one of the greatest Russians. Pyotr Ilyich

Tchaikovsky, an outstanding Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk in 1840.

He was fond of music since his early childhood. His mother sang him

beautiful songs and taught him to play the piano. He graduated from the

Petersburg Conservatoire only in 1866 because of his poor living

conditions. He was the best pupil of Anton Rubinstein. Wen the Moscow

Conservatoire was founded Pyotr Ilyich became a professor there. He created

wonderful music: 10 operas, 3 ballets, 6 symphonies, 7 large symphonic

poems and many other musical pieces. , a new type of opera, was a great

success all over the world. Margaret Thatcher was the longest Prime

Minister of the 20th century. Her style and her views appealed to mane

British people who had lost confidence in the welfare state and in the

direction the nation had taken. In some ways she was the first genuine

leader the nation had had since Churchill. Margaret Thatcher began her

career in politics, when she became a Conservative Member of Parliament. in

1979 she was elected as Britain's first woman Prime Minister. From the

start, her autocratic style earned her the nickname of "The Iron Lady". Her

abrasive manner has attracted some criticism. During the Falklands War of

1982, however, Margaret Thatcher's militant patriotism found her many

supporters, and she became something of a popular hero-figure, much as

Winston Churchill had been in the Second World War. Margaret Thatcher was

re-elected Prime Minister in the general elections of 1983 and 1987. Andrew

Wyet is one of the prominent living American painters. He was born in 1917.

The son of illustrator – Andrew is the leading member of the dynasty of

painters that includes his sisters, their husbands and his own two sons. He

won fame at the age of 12 for his illustrations of "Robin Hood". He was 20

when he first exhibited his paintings. Andrew studied with his father and

was strongly influenced by him. His father's style of illustration

expresses sentimentality. But very early the young artist gravitated a way

from his teacher. Wyet's style is both precise and minute in detail, he is

a realist influenced by photography. He painted portraits, landscapes,

seascapes and domestic scenery. His favorite media are tempera and water

colors. His works are easily recognized by dimly lit and deserted

landscapes in tones of grey and brown which convey the feeling of

loveliness and solitude. His most famous works are "Christina's world" and

"Inland shell".

|Problems of Youth. The age between 14 & 17 is considered to be one of the

best periods in people’s life. Grown-ups remind it with excitement &

tenderness. But most teens wouldn’t agree with this opinion if they were

asked. Youth is the time when a person is trying to find his place in the

world. And during this search he or she comes across different problems

which are as important as those of the adults. The youth of the 21st

century face almost the same problems which were acute to their parents

when they were young. These problems are quite serious & they can’t be

considered trifles.

One of them is a generation gap. Every generation is unique in its

experience. It has its own ideals and a system of values concerning every

aspect of human life. Adults always complain that the young people do not

blindly accept the ideals of their parents. Different generations take

different directions. Grown-ups always teach the young how to live. But the

latter want to live their own life. And it generates the conflict of the


Drinking & taking drugs have become the most actual problems of the modern

society. As for drinking , teenagers don’t realize the harm it does to

their health , they just don’t want it to the privilege of grown-ups but

unlike grown-ups they are notable to drink responsibly . They really

believe that certain drinks will make them look like they’re accepted. So,

we can say that the low level of self-appraisal is the main reason of

drinking & drug problem.

In fact, teenagers have got a lot of work. They’re busy with their

studies, household chores, some of them have a paid job. But there’s no

time for fun & they want to be entertained at least sometimes. This

excessive work leads to an inner conflict which’s usually expressed in the

form of an open, direct protest against the world of grown-ups.

Our age – is time of making a choice what we will be in future, what we

want to do and how. So we have to choose the university to have better

education and future profession. If you have a good education you’ll be

always perfect at you profession and of course you’ll earn much money, make

your life better. And the best way to prepare is to study better at school.

The school ages are also very difficult. We do a lot of homework and even

have no time to go for a walk or do whatever we want.

And of course, communication can be one of the most important problems of

all young people of today. If you don’t like noisy clubs and other places

of entertainment, you can make friends without leaving your apartment. The

Internet gives such an opportunity. But the problem is that people can sit

at the displays for 24 hours without eating, sleeping, having a rest,

working or learning properly. I am sure, that it’s a great problem of the

present and future.

So as you see it’s very difficult to be young nowadays as indeed it

always was. But you only can be young ones and some wonderful things can

happen to you only when you’re young. So it’s better to enjoy youth while

it lasts.

Holidays. Every nation and every country has its own customs and

traditions. But there are also international holidays which are celebrated

in all countries world-wide. They are: Christmas, New Year, Easter and St.

Valentine's day. Christmas comes but once a year. Christmas is a

traditional family reunion day. On this day, many people attend a church

service, open their presents and eat a Christmas dinner. In Britain,

Christmas is the most important public holiday of the year. It combines the

custom of giving gifts with the tradition of spending this day with the

family. Every year a huge Christmas tree, the gift of the Norwegian people,

graces Trafalgar square. In Russia Christmas is celebrated on the 7th of

January. On this day people celebrate the birthday of Jesus Christ. New

Year is a public holiday but it is not marked with any particular custom in

Britain and America, yet it has a joyful celebration in Russia. People stay

awake until after midnight on December 31st to watch the Old Year out and

the New Year in. Many parties are given on this night. Theatres, night

clubs and streets are crowded. Easter is one of the most important

Christian holiday. It is traditionally associated with Easter eggs and with

the coming of spring, and most churches are specially decorated with

flowers for the service held on Easter Day. There are also some special

holidays which are usually celebrated in a particular country. Let's start

with the traditional British holiday Pancake day. But people don't only eat

pancakes on this day, they run with them. In many towns in England pancake

races are held every year. These races are run by housewives. The most

American holiday is Thanksgiving day. It was first celebrated in early

colonial times by Pilgrim Fathers after their first good harvest.

Thanksgiving is a day when the family eats a large traditional dinner,

usually with turkey and pumpkin pie. In Russia we celebrate Women's day on

the 8th of March. On this day men are supposed to do everything about the

house and cook all the meals. I think it is very important to follow

special traditions, because they untie people. n Britain traditions play

more important part in the life of the people than in some other countries.

English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There is

a big difference of people between America and Britain. An Englishman in

America is respected, Americans love his accent and his country. An

American in England is thought to be a little strange because of his

behavior and his language. To the English their private lives are

important, their holidays are important, their garden are important, their

animals are important. For American the work is the most important thing in

life. And in England you can hear the most extraordinary excuse not to go

to work, for example "My dog's got a cold". In English houses the fire-

place has always been the centre of interest in a room. For many months of

the year people like to sit round the fire and watch the dancing flames.

Above the fire there is usually a shelf with a clock and some photos. The

English are a nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home. The

Englishman is never tired to say "My house is my castle". The Americans are

different. I think they are more open, they speak their minds, so if they

don't like something, they actually tell it directly. Not like the British,

who might think one thing and say another. Americans start conversations

with people in the street, in the subway; they are more enthusiastic.

American customs underline independence and freedom of the nation. Russia

is the country of the dramatic beauty. To my mind, the main traits of the

real Russia character are hospitality, "open heart", "golden hands", wise

Russian fairytales reflect their wisdom. The Russians are a very talented

nation. Russia gave the world beautiful names of Pushkin and Lermontov,

Tchaikovsky and Repin, thousands of names of world famous poets, writers,

composers, scientists. Every country is also known for its food. England is

noted for its pudding, bacon, marmalade, porridge and five-o'clock-tea.

America is the country of Coca-Cola, hamburgers and chewing gum.

Traditional Russian cooking is worldfamous for such dishes as okroshka,…

|Sports. Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been

developing with the development and growth of the mankind people all over

the world. If you want to feel fit you'd better go in for one kind of sport

or another. I should admit that everyone must do all he can to be healthy.

Good health is better than the best medicine, as the old Latin proverb

says. All kinds of physical exercises are very useful to make our bodies

strong and to keep ourselves fit and healthy.

Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop physically but

also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily

activities. It makes for a healthy mind in a healthy body sport helps

people to keep in good health. We all need to exercise. Even if you don’t

plan to make a career in sport you still have to practice. Regular

exercises give you more energy. That is why many people who suffer from

general tiredness should take more exercise than more rest. Exercise makes

you feel and look better. The best exercise is one, which is involved, in

repeated movements: walking, jogging, and swimming. Bending and stretching

will add flexibility and feeling of lightness.

As for me I try to take all these things into consideration and as a

result of it I go in dancing studio, play badminton and sometimes

volleyball, ride bicycle and swim. I think that dancing is better than

sport if you just want to keep feet, but not make a sport career. Because

sometimes sport is dangerous if you don’t know how to do exercises

properly. For example, if you run too much your calves can become too big

or you even can get injury. So you better go to a sport clubs where

experienced instructor will help you to achieve good results.

I like to dance very much and I think it’s a best way to be healthy and to

keep feet for girls. Because dancing develops all groups of muscles and

helps to keep good deportment. Besides it makes one feel confident and

helps to overcome shyness. So I am in good form and hope to be in future.

My favourite holiday. Many great holidays and anniversaries are celebrated

in our country. On the 1st of May there is May Day — the holiday of spring

and labour. On the 8th of March there is Women's Day — the holiday of all

women and girls. We celebrate Day of Independence of Russia on the 12th

June and Day of Russian Constitution on the 12th of December. Now people

celebrate some religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter. But my

favourite holiday is New Year's Day, of course. It is a really wonderful

holiday. People get ready for this holiday long before it. They buy New

Year trees and decorate them. Every year a fairy-tale comes to every house

and every family on New Year's Eve. Children and even grown-ups wait for

this day because they believe that all their wishes and desires come true

and different wonderful miracles happen on that day.

On New Year’s Eve people get together to see “the old year out and the new

year in”. They eat tasty food, drink champagne, dance and have a good time

together. They wish each other happiness and good luck in the new year and

put the presents under the New Year tree. Children like this holiday very

much. They wait for New Year presents, which, they believe, Father Frost

brings to them. Everybody is merry on that day and wishes the next year to

be good and happy and all one's troubles and disappointments to remain in

the past.

Great Britain is situated on the British Isles. It consists of England,

Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and is one thirtieth the size of

Europe. Great Britain is surrounded by seas on all sides and is separated

from the continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.

There are many rivers in Britain. They are not long but some of them are

deep. The longest river is the Severn. There are many mountains in the

north of England and in Scotland but they are not very high. The highest

mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis. There are many lakes in Scotland.

The most beautiful is Loch Lomond.

Great Britain has a very good position as it lies on the crossways of the

sea routes from Europe to the other parts of the world. There are many

countries which are connected with Great Britain by sea. Thanks to Gulf

Stream the climate of Great Britain is mild. It is often foggy and rainy.

The summer is not very hot and the winter is not very cold.

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It lives by

manufacture and trade. Its agriculture provides only half the food it

needs, the other half of its food has to be imported. Britain is one of the

most highly industrialised countries in the world: for every person

employed in agriculture, eleven are employed in mining, manufacturing and

building. The main branches of British economy are engineering, mining,

ship-building, motor vehicle manufacturing, textile, chemistry,

electronics, fishing and food processing. The industrial centres of Great

Britain are London, Manchester, Eirmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and


The United States of America is another important English-speaking country.

It consists of fifty different states and the District of Columbia joined

together under one government.

The USA covers an area of almost 9400000 square kilometres and is twice as

large as all the countries of Europe combined. It is placed in the middle

of the North American continent and is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the

east and the Pacific Ocean in the west. Placed between two oceans, the USA

has a free access to the trade routes of the world.

On the whole the USA has a continental climate. It is at the same time one

of the coldest and one of the hottest countries, one of the wettest and one

on the driest.

The flag of the United States is called “Stars and Stripes”. The 50 stars

represent the 50 states and the 13 stripes represent 13 original English

colonies, which in 1776 became free and independent of England.

The USA is governed by Congress and by the President. Congress consists of

the Senate (100 senators — 2 from each state) and the House of

Representatives (435 Congressmen). The President, who is also the head of

the government and the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces, is

elected every four years.

The capital of the United States is Washington. It is situated on the

Potomac River not far from the Atlantic coast. Washington is not a very

large city. Such cities as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco,

Houston, Dallas, Philadelphia, Detroit, New Orleans and some others are


The USA is one of the most developed countries in the world. It is a

country of great contrasts. There are a lot of unsolved problems in the

country such as unemployment and inflation, but nevertheless it is one of

the greatest countries in the world.

|Protection of Environment. It is a small world we live in, and it is high

time for all of us to realize it. Since ancient times people have been

trying to produce more and more to increase human wealth. Nobody noticed

that we were destroying Nature by using it as the source of raw materials,

and as the garbage can for our waste. Nature seemed to be boundless and

endless... Far from it as it turned out. Millions of cars and smoky

factories pollute and spoil the air we breathe in. Pollution is hanging

over big cities like an ugly brown cloud. It is hurting our lungs as well

as the life of animals, birds and plants. People need wood and paper, so we

cut down our forests. We don't know what to do with waste materials of our

industry, so we pour them into water, bury them into soil, and shoot them

into atmosphere. We pollute the water we drink, and the land we live in.

People build nuclear power stations and carry out nuclear tests. As a

result, radiation represents one of the main problems nowadays. The rapid

growth of population in the world may turn into another grave problem very

soon. The speed, with which we are using up our non-renewable resources

like oil and gas, is appalling. With the development of our civilization we

have become dangerous to the planet and to ourselves. What must we do not

to find ourselves in a dirty desert in the near future? This question

cannot be ignored. Some scientists are pessimistic about our problems. They

suppose that we have already reached the point of no return. Others are

more optimistic and believe that our ecological problems are solvable

because more and more people begin to understand how dangerous they are.

There is increasing awareness of people of the real state of the planet. In

many countries environmental protection agencies and research centers are

set up. Such organizations as "Green Peace" and "Friends of the Earth" try

to put pressure upon those governments that do not care for ecology in

their countries. The humankind will be able to survive only if we all

understand that environmental protection is our universal concern.

Mass media. The most popular sources of entertainment and information are

the press, radio, tv, and movies. The press plays an important part in the

life of society. Millions of Americans in their free time read newspapers.

The English word ‘newspaper’ does not really describe everything that you

can read in this kind of publication. Newspapers include not only stories

about recent events (news), but opinions, advertising, and other non-news

items. The first American newspaper was called Public Occurrences Both

Foreign and Domestic. This paper was first published in Boston in 1690. Now

there are about 2,600 newspapers published in the USA. The New York Times,

the Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times are three of the most

important daily papers that describe foreign and domestic news. The radio

does not interfere with your activities. You can listen to the radio while

doing some work about the house, reading a book or driving a car. On the

radio one can hear music, plays, news, and different commentary and

discussions called ‘forums’. At a forum several authorities exchange views

on social, economic and political problems. A peculiar feature of the

American radio is soap opera. It is a sentimental serial drama that

describes domestic problems and which is for housewives. Soap opera is

usually broadcast every day. Most people find soap opera boring. There ate

a lot of games on the radio. They are called ‘panel games’. Radio brings

also cultural and educational programs. Many programs are made up of

classical music. Television is a ‘chewing gum for ears and eyes’. There are

many serials on TV in the USA. They appeared in the 1950s. TV games-

attract a large audience, too. During TV quiz programs TV viewers answer

different questions. There is a lot of education on television. For

example, you can take a TV course in history, political economy,

management, banking and in many other subjects, or learn a foreign language

by TV. Educational TV films and programs are shown in schools and colleges

as a part of the curriculum.

Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and most

beautiful cities in the world. Moscow is a modern city now. The population

of the city is about 9.8 million people. Moscow is a political centre,

where the government of our country works. Moscow was founded in 1147 by

Yuri Dolgoruky. The total area of Moscow is about nine hundred square

kilometres. We say that Moscow is a port of five seas, as the Moscow—Volga

Canal links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspian and Black seas and the

Sea of Azov. Moscow is an industrial centre too. There are many factories

and plants in it. One of the best-known plants produces many lorries, and

the other one produces cars. The Bolshoi Theatre is one of the famous

theatres all over the world. If you are fond of painting you can go to the

Tretyakov Art Gallery or to the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and see a lot of

interesting portraits and landscapes there. We say that the Tretyakov Art

Gallery is a treasure-house of Russian art. Young people like to visit the

Central Military Museum. There are many tanks, guns and war documents

there. One can see the Kremlin and Red Square in the city. There are many

fine buildings, wide streets, green parks, large squares, churches and

monuments in Moscow. It is necessary to mention such famous monuments as

monuments to the great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin and to the first

Russian printer Ivan Fedorov. Visiting the capital a lot of foreigners from

all over the world come to see these monuments. One of the highest

buildings in Moscow is the State Moscow University. It was founded in 1755

by the great scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. Transport. Moscow is a very big

city, and its transport must be comfortable and fast. One can see a lot of

cars, buses, trolley-buses, trams in the streets of our city. The Moscow

metro began its work on the 15th of May, 1935. There were 13 stations at

that time. Now it has 190 stations. Our metro is a beautiful and convenient

one. There are nine railway stations in Moscow and five airports around the

city. There are many stadiums in Moscow. The Central Stadium is in

Luzhniki. Many competitions and football matches are held there. The

Olympic village was built for the 22nd Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980. It

is a big complex for sport games. I live in Moscow and I am proud of this


The vast territory of Russia lies in the Eastern part of Europe and in the

northern part of Asia. In area, it is one of the largest countries in the

world. Airlines service many cities throughout the country. A flight from

Moscow to Magadan takes eight hours. Russia is washed by twelwe seas and

three oceans. The oceans are: tha Atlantic, the Arctic, the Pacific. The

northern and eastern coasts of Russia are washed by the White Sea, the

Barents Sea and by the Okhotsk Sea. The land of Russia waries a lot from

heavy forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep

valleys. Russia is located on two plains. They are: the Great Russian Plain

and the West Siberian Plain. There are three main mountain chains in

Russia. The Urals, the longest mountain chain, separates Europe from Asia.

There are various types of climate on the territory of Russia. But the

temperate zone with four distinct seasons prevails. Russia is a land of

long rivers and deep lakes. The broad Volga River system has a great

historic, economic and cultural importance to Russia. It became the cradle

of such ancient towns as Vladimir, Tver, Yaroslavl, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod.

Numerous canals join all the rivers in the European part of Russia, making

it the largest inland water transportation route in Europe. The Volga River

runs into the Caspian Sea, which is in reality, the largest lake in the

world. The Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. The European part of

Russia is densely populated. There are a lot of cities, towns and villages

there. Russia is rich in natural resources. It has deposits of coal, oil,

natural gas, iron ore, gold, nickel, etc. Russia borders on fourteen

countries, including the former Republics of the USSR, which are now

independent states. The history of Russia dates back to the year 862. Now

Russia is a Presidental Republic. Russia has always played an important

role in the world. It is one of its leading Powers.

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