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Scotland (Шотландия)

Scotland (Шотландия)

|Scotland, administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain, occupying |

|the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is bounded on the |

|north by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by the North Sea; on the southeast by|

|England; on the south by Solway Firth, which partly separates it from England,|

|and by the Irish Sea; and on the west by North Channel, which separates it |

|from Ireland, and by the Atlantic Ocean. As a geopolitical entity Scotland |

|includes 186 nearby islands, a majority of which are contained in three |

|groups—namely, the Hebrides, also known as the Western Islands, situated off |

|the western coast; the Orkney Islands, situated off the northeastern coast; |

|and the Shetland Islands, situated northeast of the Orkney Islands. The |

|largest of the other islands is the Island of Arran. The area, including the |

|islands, is 78,772 sq km (30,414 sq mi). Edinburgh (population, 1991, 421,213)|

|is the capital of Scotland as well as a major industrial area and seaport. |

|The Land and Resources |

|Scotland has a very irregular coastline. The western coast in particular is |

|deeply penetrated by numerous arms of the sea, most of which are narrow |

|submerged valleys, known locally as sea lochs, and by a number of broad |

|indentations, generally called firths. The principal firths are the Firth of |

|Lorne, the Firth of Clyde, and Solway Firth. The major indentations on the |

|eastern coast are Dornoch Firth, Moray Firth, the Firth of Tay, and the Firth |

|of Forth. Measured around the various firths and lochs, the coastline of |

|Scotland is about 3700 km (about 2300 mi) long. |

|Physiographic Regions |

|The terrain of Scotland is predominantly mountainous but may be divided into |

|three distinct regions, from north to south: the Highlands, the Central |

|Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands. More than one-half of the surface of |

|Scotland is occupied by the Highlands, the most rugged region on the island of|

|Great Britain. Consisting of parallel mountain chains with a general |

|northeastern-southwestern trend and broken by deep ravines and valleys, the |

|Highlands are noted for their scenic grandeur. Precipitous cliffs, moorland |

|plateaus, mountain lakes, sea lochs, swift-flowing streams, and dense thickets|

|are common to the Highlands, the most sparsely inhabited section of Scotland. |

|The region is divided in two by a depression, known as the Glen More, or Great|

|Glen, which extends from Moray Firth to Loch Linnhe. To the northwest of this |

|lie heavily eroded peaks with fairly uniform elevations ranging from 610 to |

|915 m (about 2000 to 3000 ft). In the Highlands southeast of the Great Glen |

|the topography is highly diversified. This region is traversed by the Grampian|

|Mountains, the principal mountain system of Scotland. The highest peak of the |

|Grampians is Ben Nevis (1343 m/4406 ft), the highest summit in Great Britain. |

|To the south of the Highlands lies the Central Lowlands, a narrow belt |

|comprising only about one-tenth of the area of Scotland, but containing the |

|majority of the country's population. The Central Lowlands are traversed by |

|several chains of hills, including the Ochil and Sidlaw hills, and by several |

|important rivers, notably the Clyde, Forth, and Tay. |

|The terrain of the Southern Uplands, a region much less elevated and rugged |

|than the Highlands, consists largely of a moorland plateau traversed by |

|rolling valleys and broken by mountainous outcroppings. Only a few summits in |

|the Southern Uplands exceed 762 m (2500 ft) in elevation, the highest being |

|Merrick (843 m/2765 ft) in the southwest. Adjoining the Southern Uplands |

|region along the boundary with England are the Cheviot Hills. |

|Rivers and Lakes |

|Scotland is characterized by an abundance of streams and lakes (lochs). |

|Notable among the lakes, which are especially numerous in the central and |

|northern regions, are Loch Lomond (the largest), Loch Ness, Loch Tay, and Loch|

|Katrine. Many of the rivers of Scotland, in particular the rivers in the west,|

|are short, torrential streams, generally of little commercial importance. The |

|longest river of Scotland is the Tay; the Clyde, however, is the principal |

|navigational stream, site of the port of Glasgow. Other chief rivers include |

|the Forth, Tweed, Dee, and Spey. |

|Climate |

|Like the climate of the rest of Great Britain, that of Scotland is subject to |

|the moderating influences of the surrounding seas. As a result of these |

|influences, extreme seasonal variations are rare, and temperate winters and |

|cool summers are the outstanding climatic features. Low temperatures, however,|

|are common during the winter season in the mountainous districts of the |

|interior. In the western coastal region, which is subject to the moderating |

|effects of the Gulf Stream, conditions are somewhat milder than in the east. |

|The average January temperature of the eastern coastal region is 3.9њ C (39њ |

|F), and the average January temperature of the western coastal region is 3.1њ |

|C (37.5њ F); corresponding July averages are 13.8њ C (56.8њ F) and 15њ C (59њ |

|F). The average January and July temperatures for the city of Edinburgh are |

|3.5њ C (38њ F) and 14.5њ C (58њ F), respectively. Precipitation, which is |

|marked by regional variations, ranges from about 3810 mm (about 150 in) |

|annually in the western Highlands to about 635 mm (about 25 in) annually in |

|certain eastern areas. |

|Plant and Animal Life |

|The most common species of trees indigenous to Scotland are oak and |

|conifers—chiefly fir, pine, and larch. Large forested areas, however, are |

|rare, and the only important woodlands are in the southern and eastern |

|Highlands. Except in these wooded areas, vegetation in the elevated regions |

|consists largely of heather, ferns, mosses, and grasses. Saxifrage, mountain |

|willow, and other types of alpine and arctic flora occur at elevations above |

|610 m (2000 ft). Practically all of the cultivated plants of Scotland were |

|imported from America and the European continent. |

|The only large indigenous mammal in Scotland is the deer. Both the red deer |

|and the roe deer are found, but the red deer, whose habitat is the Highlands, |

|is by far the more abundant of the two species. Other indigenous mammals are |

|the hare, rabbit, otter, ermine, pine marten, and wildcat. Game birds include |

|grouse, blackcock, ptarmigan, and waterfowl. The few predatory birds include |

|the kite, osprey, and golden eagle. Scotland is famous for the salmon and |

|trout that abound in its streams and lakes. Many species of fish, including |

|cod, haddock, herring, and various types of shellfish, are found in the |

|coastal waters. |

|Natural Resources |

|Scotland, like the rest of the island of Great Britain, has significant |

|reserves of coal. It also possesses large deposits of zinc, chiefly in the |

|south. The soil is generally rocky and infertile, except for that of the |

|Central Lowlands. Northern Scotland has great hydroelectric power potential |

|and contains Great Britain's largest hydroelectric generating stations. |

|Beginning in the late 1970s, offshore oil deposits in the North Sea became an |

|important part of the Scottish economy. |

|Population |

|The people of Scotland, like those of Great Britain in general, are |

|descendants of various racial stocks, including the Picts, Celts, |

|Scandinavians, and Romans. Scotland is a mixed rural-industrial society. Scots|

|divide themselves into Highlanders, who consider themselves of purer Celtic |

|blood and retain a stronger feeling of the clan, and Lowlanders, who are |

|largely of Teutonic blood. |

|Population Characteristics |

|The population of Scotland was (1991 preliminary) 4,957,289. The population |

|density was about 64 persons per sq km (167 per sq mi). The highest density is|

|in the Central Lowlands, where nearly three-quarters of the Scots live, and |

|the lowest is in the Highlands. About two-thirds of the population are urban |

|dwellers. |

|Principal Cities |

|The most populous city in Scotland (654,542) is Glasgow. The conurbation of |

|Clydeside, which includes the cities of Glasgow and Clydebank, is the largest |

|shipbuilding and marine engineering center in Great Britain. Other important |

|industrial cities are Dundee (165,548) and Aberdeen (201,099). |

|Religion and Language |

|The Church of Scotland, a Presbyterian denomination, is the official state |

|church. The Roman Catholic church is second in importance. Other leading |

|denominations are the Episcopal Church in Scotland, Congregationalist, |

|Baptist, Methodist, and Unitarian. Jews are a small minority. |

|English is generally spoken; fewer than 100,000 Scots (mainly inhabitants of |

|the Highlands and island groups) also speak the Scottish form of Gaelic. |

|Education |

|Schools in Scotland are administered by the Scottish Education Department and |

|by local education authorities. |

|Elementary and Secondary Schools |

|In the mid-1980s some 879,000 pupils were attending publicly maintained |

|schools and about 31,900 were in private schools. The transfer from elementary|

|to secondary schools generally takes place at the age of 12. For a discussion |

|on specialized schools. |

|Universities and Colleges |

|Scotland has about 66 institutions providing programs of study beyond the |

|secondary level for those students who do not go on to the universities. These|

|include colleges of agriculture, art, commerce, and science, and in the |

|mid-1980s the total enrollment was more than 81,000. Teacher-training colleges|

|numbered seven, with approximately 3000 students. Of the eight universities in|

|Scotland, the oldest (University of Aberdeen, University of Edinburgh, |

|University of Glasgow, and University of St. Andrews) were founded in the 15th|

|and 16th centuries. Four universities have received their charters since 1960.|

|Total university enrollment was about 43,100 in the early 1980s. |

|Culture |

|Clans, the traditional keystone of Scottish society, are no longer powerful. |

|Originally, the clan, a grouping of an entire family with one head, or laird, |

|was also important as a fighting unit. The solidarity associated with clan |

|membership has been expanded into a strong national pride. The Puritan zeal of|

|Scottish Presbyterianism, which is traceable to John Knox, the 16th-century |

|religious reformer and statesman, is also strong. Popular sports of Scottish |

|origin include curling and golf. |

|Bagpipes, usually associated with Scottish music, were probably introduced by |

|the Romans, who acquired them in the Middle East. Scottish music is noted for |

|the wide use of a five-tone, or pentatonic, scale. Folk tunes are not |

|standardized, and a single song may have hundreds of variations in lyrics and |

|music. |

|Government |

|Scotland is governed as an integral part of Great Britain. It is represented |

|by 72 members in the House of Commons and by 16 Scottish peers in the House of|

|Lords. |

|Central Government |

|Scottish affairs are administered by a British cabinet ministry, headed by the|

|secretary of state for Scotland. |

|The statutory functions of the secretary of state are discharged by five main |

|departments of equal status: the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for |

|Scotland, the Scottish Development Department, the Scottish Education |

|Department, the Scottish Home and Health Department, and the Industry |

|Department for Scotland. Each is administered by a secretary who is |

|responsible to the secretary of state. The routine administration of the |

|departments proceeds from Edinburgh, but each department has representatives |

|in London, where they perform liaison and parliamentary duties. |

|Legislature |

|Before the union of Scotland and England in 1707, Scotland had developed its |

|own system of law, which continued after the union. The Scottish law system is|

|based on civil law, which is derived from ancient Roman law, whereas the other|

|parts of Great Britain follow the common law, which originated in England with|

|the evolution of case law and precedents. Because of the different systems of |

|law, separate statutes or statutory provisions often are enacted by Parliament|

|for application in Scotland. Any statute must state expressly or imply that it|

|is applicable to Scotland in order to become enforceable. |

|Judiciary |

|The Scottish judiciary is organized separately from that of the rest of Great |

|Britain. |

|The two higher courts of Scotland are the High Court of Justiciary (criminal) |

|and the Court of Session (civil). A panel of 21 judges is provided for both |

|courts together. Major criminal trials are held before 1 or 2 judges of the |

|High Court of Justiciary and a 15-member jury; criminal appeals may be heard |

|by a bench of at least 3 judges. The Court of Session is divided into an Outer|

|House, which holds all divorce trials and the more important civil trials, and|

|an Inner House, which functions chiefly as an appellate court in civil cases. |

|Appeals to the British House of Lords may be made from the Court of Session; |

|appellate judgments of the High Court of Justiciary are final. |

|Each of the six sheriffdoms, into which Scotland is divided, has a sheriff |

|court for less important civil and criminal cases. Petty cases are tried by |

|police courts and justices of the peace. |

|Local Government and Political Parties |

|The Scottish Development Department is responsible for general policy in |

|regard to local government. A reorganization of local government in Scotland |

|was made effective in 1975, when the counties and burghs were abolished and |

|replaced by nine regions and three island areas. The regions (but not the |

|island areas) are divided into districts. Each of these units is administered |

|by a council, whose members are elected to 4-year terms. The island areas, |

|numbering some 700 islands and islets to the north and west, the regions, and |

|the former counties, all of which are described in separate articles, are |

|listed in the accompanying table. |

|Two leading British parties, the Conservative Party and the Labour Party, have|

|shared Scottish seats in Parliament about equally since the 1920s. The |

|Scottish Nationalist Party, which was founded in 1927 in order to press for |

|complete self-government, has played a minor role in the politics of the |

|country. |

|Economy |

|Many aspects of the economy of Scotland are covered in the article on Great |

|Britain. The currency of Great Britain is the legal tender of Scotland. Both |

|agriculture and industry are important in the economy of Scotland. The chief |

|exports are petroleum and natural gas and manufactured goods, especially |

|burlap, clothing, machinery, textiles, and whiskey. The chief imports are food|

|and iron. The center of Scottish trade unionism is the Scottish Trades Union |

|Congress, with an affiliated membership of more than 980,000. |

|Agriculture |

|More than three-fourths of the land is used for agriculture; approximately |

|equal areas are devoted to farming and grazing. The most important crops are |

|wheat, oats, and potatoes. Other crops include barley, turnips, and fruit. |

|Livestock and livestock products are also of major importance. Sheep are |

|raised in both the Highlands and island groups and the Southern Uplands. |

|Scotland is also known for its beef and dairy cattle and for its dairy |

|products. |

|Forestry and Fishing |

|About 607,000 hectares (about 1.5 million acres) of Scotland is forested, 60 |

|percent of which is publicly owned. In Scotland fishing is more important than|

|forestry. The principal fishing ports are Aberdeen, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, |

|and Lerwick. The catch consists mainly of whitefish, herring, crabs, and |

|lobsters. |

|Mining and Manufacturing |

|Coal is the chief mineral wealth, and the industry is nationalized. Nearly all|

|the major coal deposits are found in the Central Lowlands. Limestone, clay, |

|and silica are also mined. Iron ores and other metals have been virtually |

|exhausted. North Sea petroleum and natural gas are sent by pipeline to points |

|in the Orkney and Shetland islands and to the mainland. Major oil refineries |

|are located at Grangemouth and Dundee. |

|About 36 percent of the labor force is employed in manufacturing. |

|Shipbuilding, steelmaking, and the manufacture of electronic items are major |

|industries and are concentrated in the region surrounding Glasgow. Other |

|important manufactures include woolen textiles and yarn, chemicals, machinery |

|of many varieties, vehicles, and whiskey. |

|Transportation and Communications |

|About 48,000 km (about 30,000 mi) of highways and about 6400 km (about 4000 |

|mi) of railroads serve Scotland. Public buses provide transportation |

|throughout most of the country, and many transatlantic flights use Prestwick |

|Airport near Glasgow. Most radio and television programs originate in England.|

|About 17 daily newspapers and 120 weeklies are published in the country. |


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