Расширенный поиск
рефераты Главная
рефераты Астрономия и космонавтика
рефераты Биология и естествознание
рефераты Бухгалтерский учет и аудит
рефераты Военное дело и гражданская оборона
рефераты Государство и право
рефераты Журналистика издательское дело и СМИ
рефераты Краеведение и этнография
рефераты Производство и технологии
рефераты Религия и мифология
рефераты Сельское лесное хозяйство и землепользование
рефераты Социальная работа
рефераты Социология и обществознание
рефераты Спорт и туризм
рефераты Строительство и архитектура
рефераты Таможенная система
рефераты Транспорт
рефераты Делопроизводство
рефераты Деньги и кредит
рефераты Инвестиции
рефераты Иностранные языки
рефераты Информатика
рефераты Искусство и культура
рефераты Исторические личности
рефераты История
рефераты Литература
рефераты Литература зарубежная
рефераты Литература русская
рефераты Авиация и космонавтика
рефераты Автомобильное хозяйство
рефераты Автотранспорт
рефераты Английский
рефераты Антикризисный менеджмент
рефераты Адвокатура
рефераты Банковское дело и кредитование
рефераты Банковское право
рефераты Безопасность жизнедеятельности
рефераты Биографии
рефераты Маркетинг реклама и торговля
рефераты Математика
рефераты Медицина
рефераты Международные отношения и мировая экономика
рефераты Менеджмент и трудовые отношения
рефераты Музыка
рефераты Кибернетика
рефераты Коммуникации и связь
рефераты Косметология
рефераты Криминалистика
рефераты Криминология
рефераты Криптология
рефераты Кулинария
рефераты Культурология
рефераты Налоги
рефераты Начертательная геометрия
рефераты Оккультизм и уфология
рефераты Педагогика
рефераты Политология
рефераты Право
рефераты Предпринимательство
рефераты Программирование и комп-ры
рефераты Психология
рефераты Радиоэлектроника

Political System of the USA

Political System of the USA

The Political System of the USA.

The USA is a federal union of 50 states. The basic law is the constitution,

adopted in 1787, which prescribes the structure of national government and

lists its rights and fields of authority. Each state has its government and

all of them have the dual character of both Federal and State government.

The political system of the USA is divided into three branches: judicial,

legislative and executive. Each branch holds a certain degree of power over

the others, and all take part in the governmental process.

The flag. It is called the stars and the stripes and old glory. It was

adopted in 1777. The red stripes proclaim courage, the white - liberty, and

the field of blue stands for loyalty.

The coat of arms. The coat of arms of the US represents an eagle with wings

outspread, holding a bangle of rods (the symbol of administer) in the left

claw and olive twig (the emblem of love) in the right claw. The motto of

the coat of arms is 'one out of many" (aplinibus nun).

The nick name. It was in 1812 when the nickname of the US government "Uncle

Sam" appeared. 'Uncle' Samuel Wilson supplied beef to the American army,

during the war of 1812, standing his barrels with the letters 'U. S.’ The

army as ‘Uncle Sam’s’ knew this beef, and later on this familiar name

became associated with the US government.

The constitution of the USA. Although the American system of government is

based on Great Britain's, it differs in having a written constitution, that

is the bases of all government and law. The constitution of the US was

adopted after the War of Independence on the 17th of September 1787. It

lists the set of rules, law regulations, which provide the practical norms,

regulating the work of the government. The document imbodied the practical

theories of man of property. The main principle underline the constitution

was as follows: "Private property is the backbone of liberty". It was put

forward by a rich plantation owner from Virginia James Madison, who is

known to be a father of the constitution.

The constitution consists of Preamble and seven articles. 27 amendments

have so far been added to its original text. The first 10 amendments, known

as "the Bill of Rights', were added in a group in 1791. These amendments

establish the individual rights and freedoms to all people of the states,

including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of worship etc.

Americans fill that of all freedoms, proclaimed in the constitution, there

is only one freedom - the freedom of enterprise. But it means freedom of

the wealthy people only. The 21st amendment limited the President's ruling

by maximum two terms.

The legislative branch. Supreme legislative power in the American

government lies with Congress: the Senate, the upper house; and the House

of the Representatives - the Lower House. Each state has its own government

- State Assemblies or, Legislatures with two houses. According to the

constitution of the USA, all citizens of both sexes over 18 years of age

has a right of voting, but in reality the number of voters is much smaller.

The main task of Congress is to make federal laws, to levy federal taxes,

to make rules for trade, to corn money, to organise Armed forces, to

declare war, to make amendments to the constitution or put foreign treaties

into effect.

Under the constitution the US Senate has some special powers, not given

to the House of representatives. It approves or disapproves the main

presidential appointments: Ambassadors. Cabinet Members and federal judges;

also ratify by a 2/3 vote treatments between the USA and foreign countries.

The House of Representatives has a special power of its own - to invent a

bill to raise money.

The Senate is composed of 100 members - two from each of 50 states, who

are elected for a term of * years. Although congressional elections take

place every two years, only 1/3 of the Senate is reelected. A Senator must

be at least 30ty years old, a citizen of the USA for 9 years and a resident

of the state from which he is elected. Democrats sit in the western part of

the chamber - on Vice-president right. Republicans sit on his left. Vice-

president presides over the Senate and conducts debates. The Senate is

stable and more conservative than the House of Representatives and many

Senators are more experienced politicians.

The House of representatives has 450 members. The number of

Representatives depends on the population of each state. A Representative

must be at least 25 years age, a US citizen for 7 years and live in the

state from which he is elected. Democrats sit on the Speakers right,

republicans - on his left. The Speaker presides over the House and conducts

debates. The Speaker, like Vice-president, may vote. Most of the

Congressmen are layers, businessman and bankers. The American press as an

unrepresentative institution sometimes criticises the US Congress.

The Congress in work. A new Congress session begins on the 3rd of January

each odd number year and continues for two years. A Congressman must work

long and hard. But most of their work is done in committee meetings. Here

bills are studied, experts are consulted, and recommendations are made to

the whole House of Senate. During a two year term of a Congress, as many as

20000 bills are introduced. There are 16 'standing' or permanent committees

in the Senate, and 22 in the House. They accept and improve some bills, but

reject most of them. For a bill becomes a law it must be read, studied in

committees, commented on and amended in the Senate or House chamber in

which it was introduced. It is then voted upon. If it passes, it is sent to

the other house where a similar procedure occurs. Members of both houses

work together in "conference committees" if the chambers have passed

different versions of the same bill. Groups who try to persuade Congressmen

to vote for or against a bill are known as "lobbies". When both houses of

Congress pass a bill on which they agree, it is sent to the president for

his signature. If President is disapproves, he vetoes and refusing to sign

it, and sends it back to Congress. President’s objection are read and

debated. To overcome the President's veto, the bill must get a 2/3 majority

in each chamber.

Lobbyists. Often discussing Congress of the USA, the third chamber is

mentioned. It's a specific American phenomena called lobbies. Today ifs big

corporations, social organisations, foreign diplomats, who try to influence

lawmaking process in their favour. This is done with the help of lobbyists.

Practically lobbyism (backstage influence in legislation) has become legal,

it means, that the passing of a bill can be prevented, if it doesn’t suit

the interests of a definite group of big business. Lobbyists make all

themselves legislative councils. More and more people realise that

legislation is shaped as much by the hidden influences, as by the public


The executive branch. The executive power in the USA belongs to the

President and his Administration. The Presidency in the USA is the highest

governmental office. President in the USA is the head of the state and the

government, and also the commander-in-chief of the US Armed Forces.

Vice-resident and the Cabinet assist president. The President and Vice-

president are elected for a term of four years and can be reelected.

President must be a natural-born citizen of the USA and at least 35 years

old, and for at least 14 years resident of the USA. The term of office of

the President begins on the 2nd of January. Presidential elections are head

in two stages - in November and December. Before the elections the

candidates for Presidency tour the country, meeting people and delivering


The president, as the chief formulator of public policy, often proposes

legislation to Congress. The president can also veto (forbid) any bill

passed by Congress. The veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in both

the Senate and House of Representatives. As head of his political party,

with ready access to the news media, the president can easily influence

public opinion regarding issues and legislation that he deems vital.

President conducts foreign affairs, signed documents, appoints diplomats,

Cabinet Members, federal judges with the consent and advice of the Senate.

He outlines the course of his administration threw Congress.

Vice-president presides over the Senate, his other duties are

indefinite. He takes the president's office, if the president is unable to

finish his term. So Vice-president is 'a forgotten man of the American

politics'. A Cabinet of 12 members assists the US President. Cabinet

secretaries correspond to European ministers. They are heads of different

departments and are responsible to President. Today these 13 departments

are State, Treasury, Defence, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce,

Labour, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development,

Transportation, Energy and Education. The State Department ranks ahead of

others. The political power of the Secretary of the State is the second

only to that of the president. He must maintains peace and negotiates

economic and political treatness.

Besides, President has an inner Cabinet, the so-called 'white-house

office', i. e. immediate assistance and advises of the President. The House

of Representatives may bring charges against the President, it is called

'impeachment' - a formal accusation against a public official by a

legislative body, for treason, bribery and other high crimes.

Under the Constitution, the president is primarily responsible for

foreign relations with other nations. He often represents the United States

abroad in consultations with other heads of state, and, through his

officials, he negotiates treaties with over countries. Such treaties must

be approved by a two-thirds vote of the Senate. Presidents also negotiate

with other nations less formal "executive agreements" that are not subject

to Senate approval.

Inauguration. Inauguration always takes place on the 20th of January, it is

an official act of installing the President of the USA to his office.

Inauguration is connected with some traditions. Thus the incumbent.

President gives dinner on the eve in honour of the President elected and to

conduct him threw the White House'. By 12 o'clock of the 2nd of January two

participants of the ceremony and guests take their places in front of the

Capitol. The central point of the ceremony is the taking of an oath by the

President and the delivering of his Inaugural speech, it is regarded as a

declaration of principles, proclaimed by the new administration. The

ceremony ends in a military parade.

The major political parties. The US began as a one party political system.

But gradually two-party system appeared. The present-day Democratic Party

was founded in 1828, representing southern states. It united slave owners.

The Republican Party was founded in 1854 and united people from Northeast,

who were against slavering. The emblem of the Democratic Party is a donkey.

The emblem of the Republican Party is an elephant. The main task of the

parties is to win elections. One of the reasons of stability at the two

party systems is family tradition to inherit politics from fathers.

Judiciary. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, which is the

only court specifically created by the Constitution. In addition, the

Congress has established 11 federal courts of appeal and. below them, 91

federal district courts. Federal judges are appointed for life or voluntary

retirement, and can only be removed from office through the process of

impeachment and trial in the Congress.

Federal courts have jurisdiction over cases arising out of the

Constitution: laws and treaties of the United States: maritime cases;

issues involving foreign citizens or governments; and cases in which the

federal government itself is a party. Ordinarily, federal courts do not

hear cases arising out of the laws of individual states.

The Supreme Court today consists of a chief justice and eight

associate justices. With minor exceptions, all its cases reach the Court on

appeal from lower federal or state courts. Most of these cases involve

disputes over the interpretation of laws and legislation. In this capacity,

the Court's most important function consists of determining whether

congressional legislation or executive action violates the Constitution.

This power of judicial review is not specifically provided for by the

Constitution; rather, it is the Court's interpretation of its

Constitutional role as established in the landmark.


© 2011 Все права защищены