Расширенный поиск
рефераты Главная
рефераты Астрономия и космонавтика
рефераты Биология и естествознание
рефераты Бухгалтерский учет и аудит
рефераты Военное дело и гражданская оборона
рефераты Государство и право
рефераты Журналистика издательское дело и СМИ
рефераты Краеведение и этнография
рефераты Производство и технологии
рефераты Религия и мифология
рефераты Сельское лесное хозяйство и землепользование
рефераты Социальная работа
рефераты Социология и обществознание
рефераты Спорт и туризм
рефераты Строительство и архитектура
рефераты Таможенная система
рефераты Транспорт
рефераты Делопроизводство
рефераты Деньги и кредит
рефераты Инвестиции
рефераты Иностранные языки
рефераты Информатика
рефераты Искусство и культура
рефераты Исторические личности
рефераты История
рефераты Литература
рефераты Литература зарубежная
рефераты Литература русская
рефераты Авиация и космонавтика
рефераты Автомобильное хозяйство
рефераты Автотранспорт
рефераты Английский
рефераты Антикризисный менеджмент
рефераты Адвокатура
рефераты Банковское дело и кредитование
рефераты Банковское право
рефераты Безопасность жизнедеятельности
рефераты Биографии
рефераты Маркетинг реклама и торговля
рефераты Математика
рефераты Медицина
рефераты Международные отношения и мировая экономика
рефераты Менеджмент и трудовые отношения
рефераты Музыка
рефераты Кибернетика
рефераты Коммуникации и связь
рефераты Косметология
рефераты Криминалистика
рефераты Криминология
рефераты Криптология
рефераты Кулинария
рефераты Культурология
рефераты Налоги
рефераты Начертательная геометрия
рефераты Оккультизм и уфология
рефераты Педагогика
рефераты Политология
рефераты Право
рефераты Предпринимательство
рефераты Программирование и комп-ры
рефераты Психология
рефераты Радиоэлектроника

Oxford University

Oxford University

A Brief History of the Oxford University

Oxford is a unique and historic institution. As the oldest English-speaking

university in the world, it lays claim to eight centuries of continuous

existence. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at

Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II

banned English students from attending the University of Paris.

In 1188, the historian, Gerald of Wales, gave a public reading to the

assembled Oxford dons and in 1190 the arrival of Emo of Friesland, the

first known overseas student, initiated the University's tradition of

international scholarship. By 1201, the University was headed by a magister

scolarum Oxonie, on whom the title of Chancellor was conferred in 1214, and

in 1231 the masters were recognized as a universitas or corporation.

In the 13th century, rioting between town and gown (students and

townspeople) hastened the establishment of primitive halls of residence.

These were succeeded by the first of Oxford's colleges, which began as

medieval 'halls of residence' or endowed houses under the supervision of a

Master. University, Balliol and Merton Colleges, established between 1249

and 1264, were the oldest.

Less than a century later, Oxford had achieved eminence above every other

seat of learning, and won the praises of popes, kings and sages by virtue

of its antiquity, curriculum, doctrine and privileges. In 1355, Edward III

paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning;

he also commented on the services rendered to the state by distinguished

Oxford graduates.

Oxford early on became a centre for lively controversy, with scholars

involved in religious and political disputes. John Wyclif, a 14th-century

Master of Balliol, campaigned for a bible in the vernacular, against the

wishes of the papacy. In 1530, Henry VIII forced the University to accept

his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. During the Reformation in the 16th

century, the Anglican churchmen Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley were tried for

heresy and burnt at the stake in Oxford. The University was Royalist in the

Civil War, and Charles I held a counter-Parliament in Convocation House.

In the late 17th century, the Oxford philosopher John Locke, suspected of

treason, was forced to flee the country. The 18th century, when Oxford was

said to have forsaken port for politics, was also an era of scientific

discovery and religious revival. Edmund Halley, Professor of Geometry,

predicted the return of the comet that bears his name; John and Charles

Wesley's prayer meetings laid the foundations of the Methodist Society.

The University assumed a leading role in the Victorian era, especially in

religious controversy. From 1811 onwards The Oxford Movement sought to

revitalise the Catholic aspects of the Anglican Church. One of its leaders,

John Henry Newman, became a Roman Catholic in 1845 and was later made a

Cardinal. In 1860 the new University Museum was the site of a famous debate

between Thomas Huxley, the champion of evolution, and Bishop Wilberforce.

From 1878, academic halls were established for women, who became members of

the University in 1920. Since 1974, all but one of Oxford's 39 colleges

have changed their statutes to admit both men and women. St Hilda's remains

the only women's college.

In the years since the war, Oxford has added to its humanistic core a major

new research capacity in the natural and applied sciences, including

medicine. In so doing, it has enhanced and strengthened its traditional

role as a focus for learning and a forum for intellectual debate.

Structure of the University

Oxford is an independent and self-governing institution, consisting of the

central University and the Colleges.

The Vice-Chancellor, who holds office for seven years, is effectively the

'Chief Executive' of the University. Three Pro-Vice-Chancellors have

specific, functional responsibility for Academic Matters, Academic Services

and University Collections, and Planning and Resource Allocation. The

Chancellor, who is usually an eminent public figure elected for life,

serves as the titular head of the University, presiding over all major


The principal policy-making body is the Council of the University, which

has 26 members, including those elected by Congregation, representatives of

the Colleges and two members from outside the University. Council is

responsible for the academic policy and strategic direction of the

University, and operates through four major committees: Educational Policy

and Standards, General Purposes, Personnel, and Planning and Resource


Final responsibility for legislative matters rests with Congregation, which

comprises over 3600 members of the academic, senior research, library,

museum and administrative staff.

Day-to-day decision-making in matters such as finance and planning is

devolved to the University's five Academic Divisions - Humanities, Life and

Environmental Sciences, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Medical

Sciences and Social Sciences. Each division has a full-time divisional head

and an elected divisional board. Continuing Education is the responsibility

of a separate board.

The Colleges, though independent and self-governing, form a core element of

the University, to which they are related in a federal system, not unlike

the United States. In time, each college is granted a charter approved by

the Privy Council, under which it is governed by a Head of House and a

Governing Body comprising of a number of Fellows, most of whom also hold

University posts. There are also six Permanent Private Halls, which were

founded by different Christian denominations, and which still retain their

religious character. Thirty colleges and all six halls admit students for

both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Seven other colleges are for

graduates only; one, All Souls, has fellows only, and one, Kellogg College,

specialises in part-time graduate and continuing education.

Oxford's current academic community includes 78 Fellows of the Royal

Society and 112 Fellows of the British Academy. A further 100 Emeritus and

Honorary College Fellows are Fellows of the Royal Society and 145 Emeritus

and Honorary College Fellows are also Fellows of the British Academy.

The University of Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class

research departments (rated 5* or 5 in the RAE 2001) than any other UK



Oxford's current academic community includes 78 Fellows of the Royal

Society and 112 Fellows of the British Academy. A further 100 Emeritus and

Honorary College Fellows are Fellows of the Royal Society and 145 Emeritus

and Honorary College Fellows are also Fellows of the British Academy.

The University of Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class

research departments (rated 5* or 5 in the RAE 2001) than any other UK



The University of Oxford's total student population numbers just over

16,500 (students in residence, 2000-2001).

Almost a quarter of these students are from overseas.

More than 130 nationalities are represented among our student body.

Almost 5,000 students are engaged in postgraduate work. Of these, around

3,000 are working in the arts and humanities.

Every year more than 16,500 people take part in courses offered by the

University's Department for Continuing Education.

Latest figures show that only 5.5 per cent of Oxford graduates were

unemployed six months after graduation, compared with the national sector

average of over 6 per cent.

Oxford has a higher number of first degree graduates (36%) entering further

training than the national average (20%).

Our students and staff are currently involved in over 55 initiatives,

including visits to more than 3,700 schools and colleges, to encourage the

brightest and best students to apply to Oxford, whatever their background.

Studying at Oxford

Graduate study at Oxford

Across both the Arts and the Sciences, Oxford research is consistently in

the top rank both nationally and internationally. As well as being in the

forefront of scientific, medical and technological achievement, the

University has strong links with research institutions and industrial

concerns both in the United Kingdom and overseas. The University's income

from externally funded research grants and contracts in 2000-1 totalled

over Ј142-4 million. The University's great age also allows its teaching

staff and research students to draw on a heritage of magnificent library

and museum collections.

In all these fields, Oxford attracts scholars from many parts of the world

to join its teaching and research staff, and values also the important role

of overseas graduate students (approximately one quarter of the total

graduate body) in providing intellectual stimulation and creating and

maintaining academic links with colleagues abroad. A hundred countries are

at present represented in this way.

The development of graduate studies has largely taken place in the 20th

century and in the last 30 years seven new graduate colleges have been set

up. However, most graduate students still belong to a traditional

undergraduate college where their presence is valuable to teachers and

undergraduates alike.

Graduate courses

The University offers a wide range of taught graduate courses and research

degrees, ranging from one to three or more years in length. While the

Master of Studies (MSt) degree is awarded after examination at the end of

three terms' work, three or more years are normally required to complete a

thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

For all diplomas and degrees, except the few offered as part-time courses,

students must spend a period in residence - which means postgraduate

students live in term time within 25 miles of Oxford. There are no external

degrees and there are only a few part-time courses in specific subjects.

The minimum period of residence for most diplomas or the degrees of MSc or

MSt is three terms. The minimum period of residence for the degrees of

MPhil (BPhil in Philosophy), MLitt, or DPhil is normally six terms.

The academic year runs from October to September and is divided into three

terms, Michaelmas, Hilary, and Trinity, and three vacations. The dates of

Full Terms, eight-week periods during which lectures and other instruction

are given, are as follows for the next two years:

| |Academic year 2003-4 |Academic year 2004-5 |

|Michaelmas Term |12 Oct to 6 Dec |10 Oct to 4 Dec |

|Hilary Term |18 Jan to 13 Mar |16 Jan to 12 Mar |

|Trinity Term |25 Apr to 19 June |24 Apr to 18 June |

The graduate, however, unlike the undergraduate, will normally be in

residence for most of the year. In many departments formal lectures,

seminars and classes for graduates continue into the vacations.

Teaching & Research

In 2002, Oxford University claimed first place in the annual Times Good

University Guide, which ranks universities according to the quality of

teaching and research, as well as indicators including staffing levels,

facilities spending and graduate destinations.

In the Financial Times 2002 MBA ranking, the Saпd Business School's one-

year MBA course received the highest rating for value for money of all the

international schools surveyed.

In 2002, Oxford University topped the annual league table of teacher

training providers for the fifth successive year.

Oxford University was named the UK's most innovative University in the

Launchit2001 competition, in recognition of the greatest achievements in

innovation and enterprise across the broadest range of activity.

In the academic year 2000-2001, Oxford's overall research income from

external sponsors rose by 10 per cent for the second successive year,

reaching Ј142.4 million.

In the most recent national Teaching Quality Assessment exercises for 2000,

Oxford was awarded top marks in six out of ten subjects assessed.

Oxford, Stanford and Yale Universities have recently become partners in a

joint 'distance learning' venture, the Alliance for Lifelong Learning,

which will provide on-line courses in the arts and sciences initially to

their combined 500,000 alumni.

The University of Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class

research departments (rated 5* or 5 in the RAE 2001) than any other UK


Oxford has recently received its fourth Queen's Anniversary Prize, in

recognition of the Refugee Studies Centre's contribution to the study of

forced migration and refugees.

Isis Innovation, the University's technology transfer company, files on

average one new patent application a week and spins out a new company from

University research every two months.

Oxford has spun out more companies than any other UK university. Our spin-

out companies are collectively worth around Ј2 billion, and have helped

produce some 30 multi-millionaires.

Oxford is the UK pioneer in developing a university intellectual property


Latest research: Revolutionary new test to help eliminate tuberculosis

3 December 2002

A revolutionary new test for identifying people infected with tuberculosis

(TB), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, will shortly be

launched by Oxford Immunotec Ltd, a new Oxford University spin-off company.

The test radically improves the speed and accuracy with which the disease

can be identified. It has been developed to replace the existing skin test

for TB, which is given to 600,000 UK schoolchildren every year.

Oxford Immunotec's test has come from discoveries made over the last seven

years at the University of Oxford by Dr Ajit Lalvani and collaborators at

the Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital. A replacement

for the 100-year-old skin test is long overdue but, until now, there has

not been a better way of diagnosing infection.

The Oxford Immunotec test is based on patented technology which provides a

simple and extremely accurate way of studying a person's cellular immune

response to an infection. Every time someone becomes infected with a

disease, the body produces specific cells (white blood cells) to fight the

infection. The new test looks to see if the body has produced these cells

in response to TB and monitors how their numbers change over time. In this

way, it is possible to determine if a person is infected and whether they

are effectively fighting the infection. This powerful technique can be used

not only for diagnosis of infections, but also for prognosis of disease and

monitoring of treatment.

Crucially, the Oxford Immunotec test will also make it possible to

accurately identify people who are carrying TB infection, but who have not

yet gone on to develop disease. Diagnosing and treating infected people

before they go on to develop severe disease and infect others is essential

to prevent the spread of TB and save lives. TB kills between two and three

million people each year, and the death toll is increasing. TB in the UK

has risen almost every year for the last 15 years, with 6,500 newly

diagnosed cases each year.

Since 1998, Dr Lalvani has used this rapid blood test in double blinded,

randomised studies to prove its effectiveness in over 2,000 TB patients and

healthy controls in eight different countries. These studies demonstrate

that the new test is a radical improvement on the current skin test, and

that, unlike the skin test, it works well in people with weaker immune

systems, such as children, the elderly and those immunosuppressed with

diseases like HIV.

Dr Peter Wrighton-Smith, CEO of Oxford Immunotec, said: 'We are extremely

excited about this new test which we believe will revolutionise TB control.

This test is needed as never before because TB is resurging in the

developed world and already parts of the UK have TB rates as high as India.

The huge amount of clinical data gathered to date proves this technology

works and we are already looking to apply it to other diseases where the

cellular immune response is critical, such as HIV, Hepatitis C and Cancer.'

Life in Oxford

The city of Oxford

Oxford lies about 57 miles (90km) north-west of London. A medium-sized city

with a large student population, Oxford has a lively and cosmopolitan

atmosphere, with excellent cultural, leisure, sport and retail amenities.

Oxford's historic architecture is well renowned. Amongst its beautiful

buildings and modern facilities are parks, gardens and waterways. In

addition to those offered by the University, the city of Oxford has its own

cultural facilities, including the Museum of Oxford and the Museum of

Modern Art. Drama productions are performed at, amongst others, the Oxford

Playhouse, and the Apollo Theatre, and there are several cinemas. Sports

fans enjoy county cricket in the University Parks and third-division

football at Oxford United, as well as punting, swimming, and ice-skating in

the city centre.

There is heavy traffic in Oxford, and much of the city centre is now closed

to private traffic. Fortunately, most of the University area can be

comfortably covered on foot or bicycle. Secondhand bicycles can be hired or

bought and local bus services are excellent.

Oxford is also well served by national road and rail links. A direct 24-

hour coach service connects the city with London, and with Heathrow and

Gatwick airports.

The city and surrounding area are home to various industries including a

growing number of high-technology companies in areas such as IT and

biosciences, which have developed from University research or are attracted

by the proximity of the University. Oxford is also a major tourist centre.


Students at Oxford enjoy a wealth of opportunity to involve themselves in

music, as listeners and performers, and at all levels. At the top end the

University boasts student orchestras of professional calibre (notably the

Oxford University Orchestra and the Philharmonia), and choirs of renown

(Christ Church, Magdalen and New College, along with the Schola Cantorum).

Other levels of accomplishment are catered for by college music societies,

many of which run ambitious programmes of chamber, orchestral and vocal

music. Opera is represented by at least two University-based organizations.

Other organizations within the University cater for almost every other

conceivable interest, from Soul to Jazz, from Indian to contemporary.

Oxford plays host to musicians from far and wide, including opera companies

from Glynbourne and Cardiff, and orchestras of distinction such as the CBSO

and the orchestra of St John's Smith Square. And if you feel there is

something missing, Oxford is the ideal place to do your own thing with the

unlimited musical talent the University has at its disposal.


The University provides a spring-board for sportsmen and women to achieve

at county, national and international level, partly because of excellent

sporting facilities at college and University level. The majority of

colleges provide sports grounds, squash courts and boat houses on the river

Isis for the annual inter-college rowing competition, 'Eights'.

The University provides generous sporting facilities in all areas including

sports not normally available at college level, such as volleyball,

athletics, fencing and judo. Many of these facilities are located at the

Iffley Road Sports Complex, which also boasts a modern multi-gym, an all-

weather track, and a newly-opened artificial hockey pitch. Association

football, lawn tennis and rugby are also catered for at this site, along

with a rowing tank and gymnasium. A 25-metre swimming pool should be

completed soon.

Sources of Knowledge

Bodleian Library

The Bodleian Library is the principal library of the University, taking its

name from Sir Thomas Bodley who refounded it on the site of an earlier

library. It was opened in 1602 and has an unbroken history from that time.

When publishing and copyright became subject to statute the Bodleian

became, and remains, one of the libraries of legal deposit. Material

published elsewhere than in Great Britain and Ireland is extensively

acquired, mainly by purchase.

The Library's collections are housed in several buildings. The central

group consists of the Old Library, the Radcliffe Camera, the New Library,

and the Clarendon Building. A large part of the Library's holdings of some

seven million volumes is housed in the bookstacks of the New Library.

Reading rooms on the central site contain on open access selected material

on English language and literature, history, theology, classics,

bibliography, education, music, geography, philosophy, politics and

economics, management studies, Latin American studies and Slavonic and East

European studies. Western manuscripts and early printed books are normally

consulted in Duke Humfrey's Library within the Old Library, and the Modern

Papers reading room in the New Library. Oriental books and manuscripts are

consulted in the Oriental Reading Room.

Books on science and medicine, law, South Asian studies, Japanese studies,

the Middle East and China (teaching and loan collection) and Eastern Art,

and American and Commonwealth history, are kept in other libraries within

the group, described separately below.

The majority of printed accessions are listed in the OLIS online catalogue,

which may be consulted on terminals throughout the Bodleian. Terminals in

all reading rooms in the Bodleian may be used to connect to OxLIP, a range

of electronic resources, bibliographic and full-text, in all subject areas,

mounted both on the local network and on remote computers. These resources

are also available from other workstations connected to the University

network in colleges, faculties and departments. Workstations also give

access to the Bodleian catalogue of pre-1920 books, both via OLIS and on CD

ROM. The Chinese and Japanese catalogues are partially recorded in original

script on the Allegro system and may be accessed via the network or the

Internet. Work on converting the card catalogues is well advanced.

Students formally registered with the University are entitled to readership

upon complying with certain formalities; arrangements will be made through

their colleges. The central Bodleian is not a lending library, nor are

readers in general admitted to the bookstacks. There are facilities for

reading microform material, and photographic and photocopying services.

Readers may use their own laptop computers.

More detailed information about the Library as a whole may be found in A

general guide to the Bodleian Library and its dependent libraries, and

about the Central Bodleian in Guide to the Central Bodleian Library. Both

are obtainable free at the Library and in PDF format from the Library's web


Museum of the History of Science

The Museum of the History of Science, housed in the Old Ashmolean Building

in Broad Street, is primarily a museum of scientific instruments of

historical interest. The very fine building was erected by the University

to house the collections of Elias Ashmole (1617-92), and to serve for

lectures in natural philosophy and as a chemical laboratory; it was opened

in 1683. The Ashmolean Museum (now in Beaumont Street) remained in the

building until the end of the 19th century. The building became a museum

again in 1925, after the Lewis Evans Collection was accepted by the

University and placed in the upper gallery; in 1935 the scientific

collections had so increased in size and scope that the name was changed to

the Museum of the History of Science.

Substantial donations, loans, and purchases have continued to augment the

collections, which comprise:

1. The Lewis Evans and Billmeir collections of mathematical, time-telling,

and surveying instruments, including a remarkable collection of armillary

spheres, astrolabes, quadrants, and sundials, dating from the medieval

period to the 19th century

2. The Barnett and Beeson collections of clocks and watches, especially

rich in clocks and watches made by Oxfordshire craftsmen

3. Astronomical instruments derived from the Savilian and Radcliffe

Observatories, from the Royal Astronomical Society, and other sources,

including exceptionally interesting instruments from the 17th and 18th


4. The Clay collection of optical instruments, which includes many early

microscopes, the Royal Microscopical Society's collection of early

microscopes, and a large collection of telescopes and other optical


Beyond these discrete collections, the Museum contains a wealth of

apparatus and instruments covering a broad spectrum of the history of

science. Its collections are especially strong from the medieval period

until the early 19th century.

The Museum has recently undergone major refurbishment, with new displays,

and, in the basement, a special exhibitions gallery, education room, public

toilets, and library. The basement area is entirely accessible for

wheelchair users, and is reached by a lift in the Sheldonian Yard. An MSc

course in History of Science: Instruments, Museums, Science, Technology is

taught within the Museum by the curatorial staff.

The Museum is open to the public, from 12 noon to 4.00 pm, Tuesday to

Saturday, throughout the year, except for Bank Holidays, and for about a

week after Christmas. The library may be used, on application, by students

and others engaged in research. It is open regularly to the Museum's own

graduate students.

All information was taken from the Official University of Oxford Site

Table of Contents:

1. A Brief History of the Oxford University

2. Structure of the University

2.1 Staff

2.2 Students

3. Studying at Oxford

3.1 Graduate study at Oxford

3.2 Graduate courses

4. Teaching & Research

4.1 Latest research

5. Life in Oxford

5.1 The city of Oxford

5.2 Music

5.3 Sports

6. Sources of Knowledge

6.1 Bodleian Library

6.2 Museum of the History of Science


Map of Oxford dated 1644

The University Church in 1726


© 2011 Все права защищены