` Mass media.
Mass media ( that is the press, the radio and television ) play an
important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain
people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them
change their views. Mass media mould public opinion.Millions of people in
their spare time watch TV and read newspapers.
Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio
one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of
current events. Lot\'s radio or TV games and films attract a large
audience. Newspapers uses in different ways,but basically they are read.
There is a lot of advertisment on mass media. Some of the TV and radio
stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners
can advertise whatever they choose.
But it is hardly fair to say that mass media do not try to raise cultural
level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings
to millions of homes not only entertaiment and news but also cultural and
There are more then six TV channels and lot\'s of radio stations and
newspapers now in the Russian Federation.
Education in Russia
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things.I think it is
very important that everyone should be educated.Each pupils ought todo his
best to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important
in our life. Going on educational excursions gives us opportunities to
acquire some scientific knowledge.
In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsary. Pupils begin
to go to school at the age of six. When they complete high grades they can
either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a
professional school where they study not only main subjects , but are able
to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to
continue their educaton in institutes or universities.
There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialized,
politecnical, musical art and others. Nowdays appeared some new types of
schools: gimnasiums and colledges.
The educational system of Great Britain.
The educational system of G.B. is extreamely complex and bewildering.
It is very difficult to generalise about particular types of schools as
differ from one to the other. The departament of education and science is
responsible for national educational policy,but it doesn\'t employe teacher
or prescribe corricular or text books.
Each school has it\'s own board of governers consisting of teachers,
parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and
sometimes pupils. According to the law only one subject is compulsary.
Such as religious instruction.
Schooling for children is compulsary from 5 to 16, though some provision
is made for children under 5 and some pupils remain at school after 16 to
prepare for higher education.
The state school system is usually devided into 2 stages (secondary and
primary).The majority of primary schools are mixed.They are subdevided
into infant schools(ages 5 to 7),and junior schools(ages 7 to11). In
junior schools pupils were often placed in A,B,C or D-streams, according
to their abilities. Under the pressue of progressive parents and teachers
the 11+ examination has now been abolished in most parts of the country.
There are some types of schools in G.B.Grammar schools provided an
academical cause for selected pupils from the age of 11 to 18. Only those
children who have the best results are admitted to these schools. They
give pupils a high level of academic education wich can lead to the
Technical Schools offer a general education with a technical bias and
serve those pupils who are more mecanically minded. The corricular
includes more science and mathematics. Secondary modern schools were
formed to provide a non-academic education for children of lesser
attainment. The corricular includes more practical subjects. The
comprehensive schools brings about a general improvement in the system of
Everybody sometimes has a free time. Somebody prefer\'s only to sleep in
their liesure time, but the largest part of us prefer to do a great amount
of things which are pleasant and interesting for us. It may be reading, a
various types of sport game, watching TV, listening music and others. If
we have a few day or a week we prefer to go to the attractive places. Many
peoples thing that pupils and studients have too much liesure ,but in my
opinion, they are wrong. We are very busy. Many pupils have six or se-ven
lessons a day and go to school live or six day a week. Even during the
holiday we learn our lessons after school. And we just no time to go
some-there. Oldest of us are working after school or institutes. I\'am not
spend my time at school and ofter I have a free time. The large part of my
free time devote to reading. I like to read books about another
coun-tries, another times and another worlds. Also I read books about
history of our country. Besides reading I like to do physical exercises. I
and my school friends often gather after school and play basketball,
fooftball or other active games. But my favorite hobby is travelling.
Usually I travel in summer and ofter it is a trip to the south, to the
warm sea. thing all peoples must have other occupation besides their basic
work, because it extand the bounduries of the familar world and teach us
something new about people and thing.
Customs and traditions of english speaking countries.
Every country and every nation has it\'s own traditions and customs.It\'s
very important to know traditions and customs of different people.it will
help you toknow more about the history and life of different nations and
countries.One cannot speak about england without speaking about it\'s
traditions and customs .They are very important in the life of english
people.Englishman are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them
up. There are six public holidays a year in G.B.Cristmas day is one of
their favorite holidays.It\'s celebrated on the 25-th of december. There
are some traditions connected with it.One of them is to give presents to
each other.It is not only choldren and members of family.It\'s a tradition
to give cristmas presents to the people you work with.Another tradition is
to send cristmas cards.All these cards are brightly and coloured.Most of
big cities of G.B.,especially London, are decorated with coloured lights
and cristmas trees. On Trafalgar Square,in the center of London stands a
big cristmas tree.It is a gift from the people of Oslo.It is over 50 feet
high. Many families celebrate cristmas day in the open air near the
cristmas tree in order to catch the spirit of cristmas.Children find
cristmas presents in their stockings.The traditional english dinner on
cristmas is turkey and pudding. Other great holidays are:Father\'s
day,Mother\'s day,Helloween and other.