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Great Britain and Kazakhstan

Great Britain and Kazakhstan

Kazak State University of International Relationship

and World Languages

Great Britain



made: Shashkin Pavel Group № 207

Almaty 1999


I Great Britain

1. London

2. Birmingham

3. Liverpool

4. Manchester

II Sights of London

1. Westminster Palace or Houses of Parliament

2. Buckingham Palace

3. Saint James`s Palace

4. National Gallery

5. Hyde Park

III Kazakhstan

1. The new capital

2. The Commercial capital

3. Nuclear zone

4. Space center

5. Caviar capital

6. Jewel of the Caspian Sea

7. The heart of Kazakhstan

I Great Britain

1. London

London is the capital of Great Britain, SE England, on both sides of the

Thames River. Greater London (1991 pop. 6,378,600), c.620 sq mi (1,610 sq

km), consists of the Corporation of the City of London and the following 32

boroughs: Westminster, Camden, Islington, Hackney, Tower Hamlets,

Greenwich, Lewisham, Southwark, Lambeth, Wandsworth, Hammersmith and

Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea (the inner boroughs); Waltham Forest,

Redbridge, Havering, Barking and Dagenham, Newham, Bexley, Bromley,

Croydon, Sutton, Merton, Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames,

Hounslow, Hillingdon, Ealing, Brent, Harrow, Barnet, Haringey, and Enfield

(the outer boroughs). Greater London includes the area of the former county

of London, most of the former county of Middlesex, and areas that were

formerly in Surrey, Kent, Essex, and Hertfordshire. Each of the boroughs of

Greater London elects a council. The Corporation of the City (1991 pop.

4,000), 1 sq mi (2.6 sq km), the core of London historically and

commercially, elects a lord mayor, aldermen, and councilmen.


London is one of the world's foremost financial, commercial, industrial,

and cultural centers. The Bank of England, Lloyd's, and numerous banks and

investment companies have their headquarters there, primarily in the City.

It is a center for international finance, especially for large investment

houses looking for a strong foothold in the European Community. London is

one of the world's greatest ports. It exports manufactured goods and

imports petroleum, tea, wool, raw sugar, timber, butter, metals, and meat.

London is also a great manufacturing city. Many London area workers are

employed in manufacturing. Clothing, furniture, precision instruments,

jewelry, cement, chemicals, and stationery are produced. Engineering and

scientific research are also important. London is rich in artistic and

cultural activity with numerous theaters, cinemas, museums, galleries, and

opera and concert halls. London also has an ethnically and culturally

diverse population, with large groups of immigrants from Commonwealth


Points of Interest

The best-known streets of London are Fleet Street, the Strand, Piccadilly,

Whitehall, Pall Mall, Downing Street, Lombard Street, and Bond and Regent

streets (noted for their shops). Municipal parks include Hyde Park,

Kensington Gardens, and Regent's Park. Besides the British Museum, the art

galleries and museums of London include the Victoria and Albert Museum, the

National Gallery, and the Tate Gallery. The Univ. of London is the largest

in Great Britain. The new Lloyd's building was opened in 1986. Among the

more recent developments is the Canary Wharf office complex, which is only

partially completed.


Little is known of London prior to A.D. 61, when, according to the Roman

historian Tacitus, the followers of Queen Boadicea rebelled and slaughtered

the inhabitants of the Roman fort Londinium. Roman authority was soon

restored, and the first city walls were built, remnants of which still

exist. After the final withdrawal of the Roman legions in the 5th cent.,

London was lost in obscurity. Celts, Saxons, and Danes contested the

general area, and it was not until 886 that London again emerged as an

important town under the firm control of King Alfred, who rebuilt the

defenses against the Danes and gave the city a government.

London put up some resistance to William I in 1066, but he subsequently

treated the city well. During his reign the White Tower, the nucleus of the

Tower of London, was built just east of the city wall. Under the Normans

and Plantagenets (see Great Britain), the city grew commercially and

politically and during the reign of Richard I (1189–99) obtained a form of

municipal government from which the modern City Corporation developed. In

1215, King John granted the city the right to elect a mayor annually.

The guilds of the Middle Ages gained control of civic affairs and grew

sufficiently strong to restrict trade to freemen of the city. The guilds

survive today in 80 livery companies, of which members were once the voters

in London's municipal elections. Medieval London saw the foundation of the

Inns of Court and the construction of Westminster Abbey. By the 14th cent.

London had become the political capital of England. It played no active

role in the Wars of the Roses (15th cent.).

In the 16th cent. many monastical buildings were destroyed or converted to

other uses by Henry VIII, who founded several grammar schools for the poor.

The reign of Elizabeth I brought London to a level of great wealth, power,

and influence as the undisputed center of England's Renaissance culture.

This was the time of Shakespeare and the beginnings of overseas trading

companies such as the Muscovy Company. With the advent (1603) of the

Stuarts to the throne, the city became involved in struggles with the crown

on behalf of its democratic privileges, culminating in the English Civil


In 1665 the great plague took some 75,000 lives. A great fire in Sept.,

1666, lasted five days and virtually destroyed the city. Sir Christopher

Wren played a large role in rebuilding the city. He designed more than 51

churches, notably the rebuilt Saint Paul's Cathedral. Much of the business

as well as literary and political discussion was transacted in

coffeehouses, forerunners of the modern club. Until 1750, when Westminster

Bridge was opened, London Bridge, first built in the 10th cent., was the

only bridge to span the Thames. Since the 18th cent. several other bridges

have been constructed.

In the 19th cent. London began a period of extraordinary growth. The area

of present-day Greater London had about 1.1 million people in 1801; by 1851

the population had increased to 2.7 million, and by 1901 to 6.6 million.

During the Victorian era London acquired tremendous prestige as the capital

of the British Empire and as a cultural and intellectual center. Britain's

free political institutions and intellectual atmosphere continued to make

London a haven for persons unsafe in their own countries. The Italian

Giuseppe Mazzini, the Russian Alexander Herzen, and the German Karl Marx

were among many politically controversial figures who lived for long

periods in London.

Many buildings of central London were completely destroyed or partially

damaged in air raids during World War II. These include the Guildhall

(scene of the lord mayor's banquets and other public functions); No. 10

Downing Street, the British Prime Minister's residence; the Inns of Court;

Westminster Hall and the Houses of Parliament; St. George's Cathedral; and

many of the great halls of the ancient livery companies. Today there are

numerous blocks of new office buildings and districts of apartment

dwellings constructed by the government authorities. The growth of London

in the 20th cent. has been extensively planned. One notable feature has

been the concept of a “Green Belt” to save certain areas from intensive

urban development.

2. Birmingham

Birmingham is the city and county district (1991 pop. 934,900), West

Midlands, central England. The city is equidistant from Bristol, Liverpool,

Manchester, and London, England's main ports, and near the Black Country

iron and coal deposits; it is connected to the Staffordshire mines by the

Birmingham Canal, built in the 18th cent. Birmingham is Britain's second-

largest city (in both area and population) and is the center of water,

road, and rail transportation in the Midlands. The chief industries are the

manufacture of automobiles and bicycles and their components and

accessories. Other products include electrical equipment, paint, guns, and

a wide variety of metal products. By the 15th cent., Birmingham was a

market town with a large leather and wool trade; by the 16th cent. it was

also known for its many metalworks. In the English Civil War the town was

captured by the royalists. Birmingham's industrial development and

population growth accelerated in the 17th and 18th cent. In 1762, Matthew

Boulton and James Watt founded the Soho metalworks, where they designed and

built steam engines. Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, lived for

a time in Birmingham. In 1791 a mob, incensed at his radical religious and

political views, burned his home. The town was enfranchised by the Reform

Bill of 1832 and was incorporated in 1838. John Bright represented it in

Parliament from 1857 to 1889. During the 1870s, while Joseph Chamberlain

was mayor, Birmingham underwent a large program of municipal improvements,

including slum clearance and the development of gas and water works.

Birmingham was among the first English localities to have a municipal bank,

a comprehensive water-supply system, and development planning. The area of

the city was enlarged in 1891 and again in 1911 under the Greater

Birmingham scheme. Birmingham was severely damaged in World War II.

Subsequent rebuilding has resulted in modernization, especially of the city

center. Notable buildings include the town hall, built in 1834, modeled

after the temple of Castor and Pollux in Rome; the 18th-century baroque-

style Cathedral of St. Philip; and the 19th-century Cathedral of St. Chad,

the first Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in England after the

Reformation. Bull Ring, in the center of Birmingham, is the site of the

city's oldest market. The city library includes an excellent Shakespeare

collection. There is a museum and art gallery (noted for its pre-Raphaelite

collection) and a museum of science and industry. Annual music festivals

date from 1768. In the suburb of Edgbaston are the Univ. of Birmingham and

the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, a Roman Catholic shrine that was formerly

the parish house of John Henry Cardinal Newman. In the center of the city

is the Univ. of Aston.

3. Liverpool

Liverpool is the county district (1991 pop. 448,300), Merseyside, NW

England, on the Mersey River near its mouth. It is one of Britain's largest

cities. A large center for food processing (especially flour and sugar),

Liverpool has a variety of industries, including the manufacture of

electrical equipment, chemicals, and rubber. Its first wet dock was

completed by 1715; today, Liverpool's docks are more than 7 mi (11.3 km)

long. Once Britain's greatest port, Liverpool suffered extreme setbacks

with the advent of container ships, which it could not handle, and the

shift in Great Britain's trade focus from the United States to the European

Community. The city is connected by tunnel with Birkenhead across the

Mersey. Liverpool was once famous for its pottery, and its textile industry

was also prosperous; however, since World War II its cotton market has

declined considerably. In the mid-1980s, unemployment rose to 21% in the

metropolitan area, 28% in the city, and close to 60% among people under the

age of 27. In 1207, King John granted Liverpool its first charter. In 1644,

during the English Civil War, Liverpool surrendered to the royalists under

Prince Rupert after several sieges. Air raids during World War II caused

heavy damage and casualties. Liverpool Cathedral, designed by Sir George

Gilbert Scott, was begun in 1904 and completed in 1978. A Roman Catholic

cathedral was consecrated in 1967. St. George's Hall is an imposing

building in a group that includes libraries and art galleries. The Walker

Gallery has a fine collection of Italian and Flemish paintings, as well as

more modern works. The Univ. of Liverpool was incorporated in 1903. There

is a separate school of tropical medicine. The statesman William Gladstone,

the artist George Stubbs, and the members of the musical group the Beatles

were born in Liverpool.

4. Manchester

Its saw mills and paper mills date from before the Revolutionary War. The

city was also known for its production of grandfather clocks. Among its

more contemporary manufactures are automobile parts, soap, tools, and dairy

and paper products. Hartford's Bradley International Airport is located

nearby. 2 City (1990 pop. 99,567), Hillsboro co., S N.H., on both sides of

the Merrimack River; settled 1722, inc. as a city 1846. It is the largest

city in New Hampshire. Among its various manufactures are textiles, shoes,

and electrical and electronic products. The Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack

provided power for the first textile mills. In 1838 textile interests

founded the city and established a huge textile-manufacturing company.

Until the depression of the 1930s and the moving of much of the textile

industry to the south, Manchester was heavily dependent on this industry.

The city is the seat of St. Anselm's College and the Currier Gallery of

Art. John Stark lived and is buried in Manchester. A state park and a

number of ski areas are in the vicinity.

II Sight of London

1. Westminster Palace or Houses of Parliament

Westminster Palace or Houses of Parliament is in Westminster, London. The

present enormous structure, of Neo-Gothic design, was built (1840–60) by

Sir Charles Barry to replace an aggregation of ancient buildings almost

completely destroyed by fire in 1834. The complex served as a royal abode

until the 16th cent., when it was adopted as the assembly place for the

House of Commons and the House of Lords. The Great Hall was built by

William II at the end of the 11th cent. The superbly constructed hammer-

beam roof spanning its width of 68 ft. (20.7 m), part of a subsequent

rebuilding of the hall by Richard II, was the finest extant example of

medieval open-timber work; it was burned by incendiary bombs in 1941.

Westminster Hall was the only portion of the palace to survive intact from

the fire of 1834 and now serves as the entrance of the building. In it the

House of Lords, sitting as the highest English court of law, met for

centuries. Among the numerous events of historic renown enacted there were

the deposition of Richard II, the sentencing of Charles I, and the trials

of Sir Thomas More and Warren Hastings. Damage inflicted during air raids

during World War II has since been completely repaired.

2. Buckingham Palace

Buckingham Palace is th e residence of British sovereigns from 1837,

Westminster metropolitan borough, London, England, adjacent to St. James's

Park. Built (1703) by the duke of Buckingham, it was purchased (1761) by

George III and was remodeled (1825) by John Nash; the eastern facade was

added in 1847. The great ballroom was added in 1856, and in 1913 Sir Aston

Webb designed a new front. The palace has nearly 600 rooms and contains a

collection of paintings, including many royal portraits, by noted artists.

3. Saint James's Palace

Saint James's Palace is in Westminster, London, England, on St. James's

Street and fronting on Pall Mall. Henry VIII built the palace and

established the park around it. It was the London royal residence after the

burning of Whitehall in 1697 until the time of Queen Victoria. Although the

palace is now seldom used except for certain ceremonials, the British court

is still designated as the Court of St. James.

4. National Gallery

London, one of the permanent national art collections of Great Britain. Its

building, in Greek style, stands in Trafalgar Square. It was designed and

erected (1832–38) by William Wilkins and was shared for 30 years with the

Royal Academy of Arts. In 1876 a new wing was added, designed by E. M.

Barry. The nucleus of the collection was formed in 1824 with 38 pictures

from J. J. Angerstein's collection. The gallery is rich in Italian

paintings of the 15th and 16th cent. and has fine collections of French,

Flemish, and Dutch masters. The National Portrait Gallery, whose collection

dates from 1858, has adjoined the National Gallery since 1896. Originally

controlled by the National Gallery, the Tate Gallery attained complete

independence in 1955 by an act of Parliament. An extension designed by

Robert Venturi was completed in the early 1990s.

5. Hyde Park

This is 615 acres (249 hectares) in Westminster borough, London, England.

Once the manor of Hyde, a part of the old Westminster Abbey property, it

became a deer park under Henry VIII. Races were held there in the 17th

cent. In 1730, Queen Caroline had the artificial lake, the Serpentine,

constructed. It curves diagonally through Hyde Park; in Kensington Gardens

the lake is called the Long Water. Distinctive features of the park are

Hyde Park Corner (near the Marble Arch), the meeting place of soapbox

orators, and Rotten Row, a famous bridle path.

III Kazakhstan

1. Astana - The new capital

Other names for Astana include Akmola, Aqmola, Tselinograd and Akmolinsk.

This city was originally founded as a fortress in 1824 and named Akmolinsk.

It was renamed Tselinograd (Russian for Virgin City) during the rule of

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. The main reason for this name change was

to promote more permanent agriculture in Northern Kazakstan during the

Virgin Lands Program. The cities name was again changed in 1991 to Aqmola,

when Kazakstan gained it's freedom. Because the name Aqmola sounded too

much like "White Grave", Nazerbayev changed the name to Astana (literally

"Capital") in 1998. Astana has been an important rail junction in Northern

Kazakstan. It is located along the Ishim River and they produce

agricultural machinery, chemicals and has meat-packing plants. Due to it's

location in Northern Kazakstan, there is speculation, that has been

officially denied, that the reason for the move of the capital to the north

is to exert a more Kazak influence on the more russified Northern


2. Almaty - The ”City of apples”

The “City of Apples,” Kazakhstan’s capital of Almaty -- a.k.a. Alma-Ata,

from 1922-1991 -- is a thoroughly Russian city, from its foundation back in

1854, as an imperial frontier outpost, to its decidedly orderly Soviet-

style architecture and street plan.

Situated near the Kyrgyzstan border at the foot of the Tian Shan ("the

mountains of heaven"), a magnificent range connected with the Himalayas,

Almaty is a popular destination for skiers, climbers and other mountain

sports enthusiasts.

Almaty is also renowned for its orchards, and it is indeed a city of trees,

with wide boulevards lined with leafy guardians. It’s a big city, sprawling

out over some 12.5 miles. Populated by about 1.5 million residents

(Kazakhstan’s total population is around 16 million), most of whom speak

Russian, Almaty’s growth has been exponential in this century, especially

after the Turk-Sib Railway was completed in 1930. That event catapulted the

population from 46,000 in 1926 to more than 220,000 in 1939.

Unlike many cities in Central Asia, Almaty itself does not have a long

history. It has the look of a new city, at least in part thanks to a pair

of earthquakes which twice leveled it -- first in 1887 and again in 1911,

leaving little standing. The city was originally known as Verny, though its

name was changed to Alma-Ata in 1921, then shortened to Almaty after the

dissolution of the Soviet Union.

But the city’s site has a smoother history -- an early Silk Road oasis,

Almatu, destroyed by the Mongols, once stood in the area where Almaty was

founded. Today’s Almaty reflects some of its trading roots. As a modern

city seen as a crossroads between East and West, it bustles with trading

consortiums and businesses seeking to bridge the continental gap. The city

also boasts several important museums, including the State Museum of the

Arts, which showcases Kazak artworks, and the Museum of Kazak Musical

Instruments, featuring harmoniously exhibited displays of traditional music-

makers such as bagpipes, the three-stringed "kobiz," and wooden harps.

3. Semy - Nuclear zone

Another name for Semy has been Semipalatinsk. Semey was originally

established as a fortress in 1718 in a location close by it's current

location. In 1778 it was moved to it's current location along the Irtysh

River. Semey is perhaps best known for the nuclear testing that was done

nearby. This was the major nuclear testing sight for the Soviet Union. Much

of the testing was done above ground, causing the spread of radiation

throughout the area. Reservoirs were even made using a nuclear explosion to

provide water for the residents. Over 470 nuclear bombs were exploded here

between 1949 and 1989. Semey is only 93 miles (150 km) from where most of

the testing occurred. Because of the lack of environmental concerns, many

of the citizens of Semey suffer some form of radiation poisoning.

4. Baykonur - Space center

Other ways Baykonur is known is Baikonur, Leninsk, or Tyuratam. Baykonur

has long been known as a place upon where the Soviets' heroes left this

earth and became the first in space. It is from this launching point in

central Kazakstan that Sputnik was launched in October 4, 1957. It is also

from here that the first person to orbit the earth, Yuri Gagarin, started

the "Space Race" with the United States.Baykonur has been the foundation of

the Soviet space program. While there were two other launching pads,

Plesetsk (Northern Russia) and Kasputin (Central Russia) , this was the

primary launching point for manned missions. Currently, Russia has agreed

to lease Baykonur from the independent country of Kazakstan for 20 years at

$115 million in annual rent.

5. Atyrai - Caviar capital

Other names for Atyrai include Atyraь and Guryev. This city was founded as

a Russian military base on the east bank of the Ural River in 1645. It has

grown to expand on both sides of the river, leaving half of the city in

Europe and the other half in Russia. Today, it is known for its oil

refineries (from the rich oil deposits in the Caspian Sea) and for

providing much of the caviar for the former Soviet Union.

6. Aqtau - Jewel of the Caspian Sea

Another name for Aqtau was Shevkenko. Aqtau did not begin it's existence

until 1963. I was originally built as a "Soviet Model" of how cities should

be built. It has wide, straight streets and sandy beaches. It was called

Shevkenko for awhile because of a poet who was exiled there as a political

prisoner. Aqtau means "white mountain" in Kazak, so named after the vast,

flat steppes surrounding the city! It has become somewhat of a tourist

location because of it's location along the Caspian Sea. Just don't plan on

taking a bath while you are there as the water comes out of the tap brown.

Currently, there is very little industry still in Aqtau. The main industry

is oil. A few foreign oil companies have established offices in Aqtau as

they extract oil from the steppe of Mangistau Oblast. It is far from any

other cities with few ways to travel to them. Most of the cities supplies

are freighted in by air.

7. Kyzl Orda - The heart of Kazakhstan

Other names for Kyzl Orda include Qyzylorda, Ak-Mechet and Perovsk. Kyzl

Orda is a truly Kazakstan city. It was originally founded as the far

western fortress Ak-Mechet for the Kokand khanate (state). In 1853, Russian

forces took it over and renamed it Perovsk. From 1925 until 1929, Kyzl Orda

was the capital of the Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR).

Today, Kyzl Orda is the capital of the Kyzl Orda Oblast (or state). Located

along the Syrdariya River, it is a fertile rice growing area. Unlike many

of the other areas along the Syrdariya, they are unable to grow cotton

because of their northern latitude. The climate of Kyzl Orda has also under

gone a change since the Soviets took power. Talking to Kazaks who have

lived there for many years, they have noticed that the winters are colder

and the summers hotter. Much of this may be attributable to the shrinking

of the Aral Sea.

Of the cities in Kazakstan, Kyzl Orda is one of the most Kazak cities. Over

90% of the population speaks Kazak as the mother tongue and it is one of

the few large cities in Kazakstan that one can get around in using only



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