География и окружающая среда Англии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии и Шотландии (на английском языке)
Geography of Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland is at its nearest point only 21km (13 miles) from
Scotland. It has 488-km (303-mile) border in the south and vest with the
Irish Republic. At its centre lies Lough Neagh, Britain’s largest
freshwater lake (381sq km, 147sq miles). Many of the principal towns lie in
valleys leading from the lough, including the capital, Belfast, which
stands at the mouth of the river Lagan. The Mourne Mountains, rising
sharply in the south-east, include Slieve Donard, Northern Ireland’s
highest peak (852 m, 2,796 ft).
Environment of Scotland.
Scotland’s countryside contains rich variety of wildlife, with some
species not found elsewhere in Britain. There are 71 national nature
reserves and over 1,300 Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Four regional
parks and 40 national scenic areas have been designated, covering 13 per
cent of the land surface. Four of the 11 forest parks in Great Britain are
in Scotland, and a fifth spans the border between Scotland and England.
Environment of Whales
There are extensive areas of picturesque hill, lake and mountain
country, and the countryside supports a variety of plants and wildlife.
There are three National Parks (Snowdonia, the Brecon Becons and the
Pembrokeshire Coast), five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and two
national trails as well as 31 country parks and large stretches of heritage
coast. There are about 50 National Nature Reserves and over 800 Sites of
Special Scientific Interest. Nearly all of the rivers and canals are
classified as having water of good or fair quality, and a significant
improvement has been achieved in the quality of bathing waters.
Geographical Position of Great Britain.
The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British
Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great
number of small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 sq. km.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the
North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is
washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It
borders on the Irish Republic in the south. The island of Great Britain
consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the
island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the west) and Scotland (the
northern part of the island).
There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the
Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England almost along its middle, the
Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the Highlands of
Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. Ben Nevis, the tallest
peak of the Highlands, is only 1,343 m high.
There is very little country except in the region known as East Anglia.
Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the
deepest and the longest of the British rivers, it is over 300 km long. Some
of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames,
Mersey, Tyne , Clyde and Bristol Avon.
Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources, it has some
deposits of coal, and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were
discovered in the North Sea. The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean
influence the climate of Great Britain.
Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off
the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Its weather is changeable, but
there are few extremes of temperature. Britain is major world producer of
oil, natural gas and coal. Since 1980 it has been self-sufficient in
energy in net terms.
Woodland covers nearly 2-4 hectares in Britain: about 13 per cent
of Scotland, 12 per cent of Wales, 73 per cent of England, and 52 per cent
of Northern Ireland. British woodlands meet 12 per cent of the country’s
consumption of wood and wood products.
Over three-quarters of Britain’s varied landscape is used for
Responsibility for pollution control rests with local and central
government. Integrated pollution control restricts emissions to air, land
and water from the most harmful processes. Recycling of waste will be a
duty of local government.
The National Rivers Authority protects inland waters in England and Wales.
In Scotland the river purification authorities are responsible for water
Total emissions of smoke in the air have fallen by over 85 per cent since
1960. Sulphur dioxide emissions have fallen by about 40 per cent since
1970. Britain has adopted a phased programme of reductions in sulphur
dioxide emissions form existing large combustion plants of up to 60 per
cent by 2003. It has also agreed to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by up
to 30 per cent by 1998. Over 95 per cent of petrol stations in Britain
stock unleaded petrol. Strict controls have reduced carbon monoxide,
hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions.
The Government is committed to the elimination of chlorofluorocarbons,
which damage the ozone layer. They also contribute to the greenhouse
effect, which leads to global warming and rise in sea levels.
Britain stresses the need for improvement in understanding the
science of climate change.
There are nearly 500,000 protected buildings, and 7,000
conservation areas of architectural or historical interest, in Britain. The
Government supports the work of the voluntary sector in preserving the
national heritage. Green belts are where land should be left open and free
from urban sprawl. The Government attaches great importance to their
protection. National parks cover 9 per cent of the total land area of
England and Wales. Some 38 areas of outstanding natural beauty have been
designed - 13 per cent of the same land area. Three regional parks and 40
national scenic areas cover 13 per cent of Scotland. Care is taken to
control development on parts of the coastline.