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Theme: УFoodФ

Student: Sophy (IX form)

Teacher: Smirnova T. V.

Kostanai, 2002

P L A N:

1. Food celebrates life.

2. Food nourishes language.

3. Food for different cultures:

a. From land and sea

b. From high in the mountains

c. Meals in Britain

d. American food and drink

e. Kazakh traditional dishes

4. Food is symbolic.

5. Food as a fad or cult.

6. Plan a healthful diet.

7. Food is the staff of life.

УEvery man is the builder of a temple called his body (1817-1862) Ф

Thoreau, Henry Davia

English will have become an important tool for communication and

discovery rather than just another class to attend. And we would like to

look at the all-important topic, Food.

Food Celebrates Life.[1]

Have you ever noticed how much of our life is centered on food? Look at

all the meetings held, decisions made, and mergers consummated over a meal:

power breakfast, power lunch, dinners, banquets, receptions, and those

endless toasts. Consider all the celebrations where food is all-important:

weddings, birthdays, religious feast days, national holidays, etc. Food is

the great icebreaker when people meet for pleasure or business. Food is at

the center of many of our important activities.

Food Nourishes Language.[2]

Because of this importance, much of our language (regardless of the

language) contains references to food. These references conjure up images

worth a thousand words each. The idiom page contains several references to

food and shows how these are used in a non-food-related discussion. Think

about the idioms and expressions in your native language related to food

and how and when you use them. Do you use food expressions to describe

someoneТs physical characteristics (e.g., HeТs as skinny as a string bean;

his belly shakes like a bowl full of jelly.); or, to describe someoneТs

personality (e.g., Harry is a cre3am puff; sheТs as sweet as sugar.) or, to

describe a situation or activity (e.g., Something is fishy here; That

crossword puzzle is a piece of cake.). How we use food expressions depends

on how we perceive the food, or the culture associated with the food.

Food For Different Cultures.[3]

Have you ever stopped to really think about what you and your

family eat

everyday and why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people eat? In

the movie Indiana Jones and Temple of Doom, there are two scenes in which

the two characters are offered meals from a different culture. One meal,

meant to break the ice, consisted of insects. The second meal was a lavish

banquet that featured such delicacies as roasted beetles, live snakes,

eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains for dessert. Some cultures eat such

things as vipers and rattlesnakes, bush rats, dog meat, horsemeat, bats,

animal heart, liver, eyes, and insects of all sorts.

Often the differences among cultures in the foods they eat are related

to the differences in geography and local resources. People who live near

water ( the sea, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fish and crustaceans.

People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier, fatty foods.

However, with the development of a global economy, food boundaries and

differences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now on every continent

expect Antarctica, and tofu and yogurt are served all over the world.

Mexico: Beans and rice[4]

Corn tortillas (2 servings)

Black beans (2 servings)

Rice (2 servings)


Morocco: Couscous4

Couscous (wheat pasta)






India: Sag paneer4

Indian cheese (2 servings)





Rice (2 servings)

Chapati (wheat bread)

Italy: Spaghetti[5]

Spaghetti (2 servings)

Tomato sauce (2 servings)

Parmesan cheese

Chicken breasts, baked

Japan: Tempura5







Egg white

Rice (2 servings)

USA: Barbecue chicken and potato salad5

Chicken breast, barbecue





Corn (1 ear)

What do people eat?

Many factors determine the foods that people eat. Geography and climate,

tradition and history: They all go into our meals. In European country of

Spain and the Asian country of Nepal, different cultures and customs affect

what people eat.

From Land and Sea.[6]

Spain occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula, on the western edge of

Europe. It is nearly surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean


SpainТs dry climate and poor soil make farming difficult. Extensive

irrigation allows farmers to raise strawberries and rice in dry areas.

Vegetables and citrus trees grow on the coastal plains, and olives and

grapes grow in the river valleys.

The grasslands of the large dry central plateau are used for grazing

sheep, goats, and cattle. People in this region eat roasted and boiled

meats. They also raise pigs for ham and spicy sausage called chorizo. And

people all over the country eat lots of seafood from the Atlantic and the


One classic Spanish dish, paella, includes sausage, mussels, lobster, or

chicken, plus red pepper, peas, tomatoes, and saffron rice. Peasants were

the first to make paella, using whatever food was available. But this dish

and others also reflect SpainТs history of traders, conquerors, and

explorers who brought a variety of food by land and by sea.

Phoenicians from the Middle East introduced grapes to Spain in about

1100B.C. Hundreds of years later, Romans brought olives from what is now

Italy. In the 8th century A.D., Moors (Muslim Arabs and Berbers from

Africa) introduced shortgrain rice and za faran, or saffron Ц the spice

that colors rice yellow. And in the 1400s, 1500s, and 1600s, Spanish

explorers and traders returned home with nutmeg and cloves from the East

Indies: and peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate from the Americas.

From High in the Mountains.[7]

Nepal is a landlocked country in the Himalayas, the highest mountain

range in the world. Nepal has three distinct geographical zones Ц lowlands;

hills, mountains, and valleys; and the Great Himalayan Range Ц with

subtropical to alpine-arctic temperatures and wide variations in vegetation

and animal life.

Most people in Nepal are farmers. They grow fruits, fruits, and other

crops in the lowlands, where temperatures are the warmest. Rice and corn

grow in terraced, or stairlike, fields in the cooler hill regions. And

potatoes and barley are the staple, or chief, crops at higher elevations,

where temperatures are the coolest.

The Nepal raise goats, cattle, and yaks for dairy products. Meat is

eaten mostly on special occasions. Religious rules affect which meats

people in Nepal eat: Hindus, who make up almost 90 percent of the

population, do not eat beef, and Muslims do not eat pork. The Buddhist

religion prohibits the killing of any animals but allows the eating of

meat, so Buddhists hire butchers to slaughter animals for food.

A typical family meal in Nepal might include daal bhat (rice with lentil

gravy) or chapati (a flatbread), steamed vegetables, and achaar (a paste of

spiced pickled fruits). About 90 percent of the Nepalese people live in

rural areas. They often lack electricity for refrigerators or for cooking,

so they rely on dried foods such as grains, lentils, and beans.

People carry traditions and foods with them when they move from one

place to another. You might recognize examples when you look at your

classmatesТ special family foods or at specialty restaurants in your


Meals in Great Britain.[8]

The two features of life in England that possibly give visitors their

worst impressions are the English weather and English cooking.

A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal Ц sausages, bacon,

eggs, tomatoes, and mushrooms. People who do have a full breakfast say

that it is

quite good. The writer Somerset Maugham once gave the following advice:

УIf you want to eat well in England, eat three breakfasts daily.Ф But

nowadays it is often a rather hurried and informal meal. Many people just

have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam, or honey.

Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges and jam

is made from other fruits. The traditional breakfast drink is tea, which

people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee,

which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find this

coffee disgusting!

For many people lunch is a quite meal. In cities there are lot of

sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want

Ц brown, white, or a roll Ц and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to

go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food both hot and cold.

School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack

from home Ц a sandwich, a drink, some fruit and perhaps some crisps.

British kids eat more sweets than any other nationality.

УTeaФ means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have

afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream

teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.

The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They

usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole

family eats together.

On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat,

either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables, and gravy.

Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juice.

The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian,

French, Chinese, and Indian. The British have in fact always imported food

from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was a major

influence on British cooking. Another important influence on British

cooking was of course

the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and green grass,

and means that we are able to produce some of the finest varieties of

meat, fruit and vegetables, which donТt need fancy sauces or complicated

recipes to disguise their taste. People often get take-away meals Ц you buy

the food at the restaurant and than bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain

is quite international!

British Cuisine.[9]

Some people criticize English food. They say itТs unimaginable, boring,

tasteless, itТs chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables.

The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British

havenТt had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can

compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with butter?

Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just one or

two herbs it is absolutely delicious?

If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will

probably say УFish and chipsФ then stop. It is disappointing, but true

that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because

the food doesnТt lend itself to such preparations. English cooking is found

at home so it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with a

reasonable prices.

In most cities in Britain youТll find Indian, Chinese, French and

Italian restaurants. in London youТll also find Indonesian, Mexican, GreekЕ

Cynics will say that this is because English have no УcuisineФ themselves,

but this is not quite the true.

English breakfast.[10]

All people in the world have breakfast, and most people eat and drink

the same things for breakfast. They may eat different things for all the

other meals in the day, but at breakfast time, most people have the same

things to eat and drink Ц Tea or Coffee, Bread and butter, Fruit.

Some people eat meat for breakfast. English people usually eat meat at

breakfast time, but England is a cold country. It is bad to eat meat for

breakfast in hot country. It is bad to eat too much meat; if you eat meat

for breakfast, you eat meat three times a day; and that is bad in a hot

country. It is also bad to eat meat and drink tea at the same time, for tea

makes meat hard so that the stomach cannot deal with it

The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, bread and Butter, fruit. That is

the usual breakfast of most people in the world.

How tea was first drunk in Britain.11

By the time tea was first introduced into this country (1660), coffee

had already been drunk for several years.

By 1750 tea had become the most popular beverage for all types and

classes of people Ц even though a pound of tea cost a skilled worker

perhaps a third of his weekly wage!

Tea ware.

Early tea cups had no handles, because they were originally imported

from China. Chinese cups didnТt (and still donТt) have handles.

As tea drinking grew in popularity, it led to a demand for more and more

tea ware. This resulted in the rapid growth of the English pottery and

porcelain industry, which not long after became world famous for its


The tea break.

Nowadays, tea drinking is no longer a proper, formal, Ђsocialї occasion.

We don't dress up to Уgo out to teaФ anymore. But one tea ceremony is still

very important in Britain Ц the Tea Break! Millions of people in factories

and offices look forward to their tea breaks in the morning and afternoon

Things to do.

1) Make a display of as many pictures, cut from magazines. As you can

showing different kinds of tea pots and tea cups.

2) Design your own kind of tea pots and tea cups.

American food and drink.[11]

The popular view outside the U.S.A. that Americans survive on

cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is as accurate as the American

popular view that the British live on tea and fishТnТchips, the Germans

only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the French on red wine and


This view comes from the fact that much of what is advertised abroad as

УAmerican foodФ is a very pretty flat, tasteless imitation. American beef,

for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle, not from cows that are

raised mainly for milk production. As a result, American beef is more

tender and tasted better than what is usually offered as an УAmerican

steakФ in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato that comes hot

and whole in foil often lacks the most important element, the famous Idaho

potato. This has different texture and skin that comes from the climate and

soil in Idaho.

Even sometimes as basic as barbecue sauces shows difference from many of

the types found on supermarket shelves overseas. A fine barbecue sauce from

the Southside of Chicago has its own fire and soul. The Texas have a

competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (the recipes are kept


America has two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is

that as the leading agriculture nation, she has always been well supplied

with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in great variety at relatively low

prices. This is one reason why steak or beef roast is probably the most

УtypicalФ American food; it has always been more available. But good

Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do hickory-smoked or sugar-

cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other seafood such as crabs or


In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and vegetable

growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges, lemons, melons,

cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce, avocados, and cranberries

do not have to be imported. This is one reason why fruit dishes

and salads are so

common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular, both as a hobby

and as a way to save money, from the days when most Americans were farmers.

They also help to keep fresh food on the table.

The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have brought

with them, and continue to bring, the traditional foods of their countries

and cultures. The variety of foods and styles is simply amazing. Whether

Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French, German, Greek,

Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican, Vietnamese or

what have you, these traditions are now also at home in the U.S.A.

There seem to be four trends in America at present which are connected

with foods and dining. First, there has been a notable increase in the

number of reasonably priced restaurants which offer specialty foods. These

include those that specialize in many varieties and types of pancakes,

those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast foods, and the many that are

buffets or salad bars. Secondly, growing numbers of Americans are more

regularly going out to eat in restaurants. One reason is that they are not

many American women do not feel that their lives are best spent in the

kitchen. They would rather pay a professional chef and also enjoy a good

meal. At the same time, there is an increase in fine cooking as a hobby for

both men and women. For some two decades now, these have been popular

television series on all types and styles of cooking, and the increasing

popularity can easily be seen in the number of best-selling specialty

cookbooks and the number of stores that specialize in often exotic cooking

devices and spices.

A third is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans in

general are eating a much light diet. Cereals and grain foods, fruit and

vegetables, fish and salads are emphasized instead of heavy and sweet

foods. Finally, there is the international trend to Уfast foodФ chains

which sell pizza, hamburgers, Mexican foods, chicken, salads and

sandwiches, seafoods and

various ice creams. While many Americans and many other people resent this

trend and while, as many be expected, restaurants also dislike it, many

young, middle-aged, and old people, both rich and poor, continue to buy and

eat fast foods.

Hot Dogs.[12]

Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave the frankfurter its nickname in

1906. Munching on a frank at a baseball game, he concluded that it

resembled a dachshundТs body and put that whimsy into a drawing, which he

captioned УHot dogФ.

Sausages go all the way back to ancient Babylon, but the hot dog was

brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil War by a real Frankfurter Ц

Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, who opened a stand in New

York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls Ц first for a dime apiece,

later, a nickel.

The frank appealed to busy Americans, who Ц as an early 19th century

comment put it Ц tend to live by the maxim of Уgobble, gulp and goФ.

Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billion frankfurters a year.


Modern hamburgers on a bun were first served at the St. Louis Fair in

1904, but Americans really began eating them in quantity in the 1920s, when

the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small, square patty at a very

low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared, quickly caught on as

family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, and burger chains offer

Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.

The history of the hamburger dates back to medieval Europe. A Tartar

dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt and onion juice was brought

from Russia to Germany by early German sailors. The lightly broiled German

chopped-beef cake, with pickles and pumpernickel on the side, was

introduced to America in the early 1800s by German immigrants in the



It was early Dutch settlers and the Pennsylvania Germans who introduced

the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America. To the Dutch it was a festive

food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.

Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in 1847 when Hanson Gregory, a

lad later to become a sea captain, complained to his mother that her fried

cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in the next batch before they

were cooked.

During World War I, when the Salvation Army served them to the troops,

doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Since then, coffee and doughnuts

become a national institution. Stores sell them plain, sugared, frosted,

honey-dipped, or jam-filled.

Apple pie[13]

At its best, with a savory filling and crisp, light-brown crust, apple

pie has long been favorite on American tables.

Apples and apple seems were among the precious supplies the early

colonists brought to the New World. The first large apple orchards were

planted near Boston by William Blaxton in the 1600s. When he moved to Rhode

Island in 1635, he developed the tart Rhode Island Greening, still

considered one of AmericaТs finest apple pies.

As the fruit became abundant, many settlers ate apple pie at every meal.

Garnished with a chunk of cheese, it was a favorite colonial breakfast

dish. By the 18th century apple pie became so popular that Yale College in

New Haven served it every night at supper for more than 100 years.

AmericaТs love affair with apple pie has remained constant. TodayТs

housewives, pressed for time, can shortcut the tradition by buying the

pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Many variation on the good

old original are available, but the classical apple pie, irresistible when

topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered with vanilla ice cream,

is still AmericaТs favorite.

Potato chips.13

George Crumb, an American Indian who was the chef at MoonТs Lake House

in Saratoga Springs, New York, in the mid-19th century, was irked

when a

finicky dinner guest kept sending back his French fried potatoes,

complaining they were too thick. In exasperation, Crumb shaved the potatoes

into tissue-thin slice and deep-fried them in oil. He had a dishful of

crisp УSaratoga chipsФ presented to the guest, who was delighted with the

new treat.

Potato chips became the specialty of MoonТs Lake House and, later,

AmericaТs crunchiest between-meal snack.


AmericaТs best known soft drink was first concocted by an Atlanta

pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was cooked up by John S. Pemberton from

extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then organized the Pemberton

Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water was sold in a

local drug-store for 5 cents a glass.

Sales were slow until in 1887 a prosperous Atlanta druggist, Asa G.

Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula Ц then as now a carefully guarded

secret Ц and added carbonate water to the syrup instead of plain water.

Advertisement stressing the words УdeliciousФ and УrefreshingФ and carry

coupons for free Coca-Cola added to the increase in consumption. A system

of independent local bottling companies was developed, and the flared

bottle, familiar worldwide and said to resemble the hobble skirt, was

designed in 1916.

In 1919 the company was sold out for $25 million to a group headed by

Ernest Woodruff. Under his son, Robert W. Woodruff, Coca-Cola rapidly

expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than 150 million Cokes a day

were sold in country all over the world.

Today Coca-Cola has to compete with many other soft drinks, but it is

still one of the symbols of the United States.

Kazakh traditional dishes.15

The mode of life of people, traditional craft, interrelations. Customs

and traditions are, perhaps, well comprehended through traditional

dishes. The

methods of cooking, which the Kazakh people used were closely linked with

the culture and mode of life. The table manners of nomads, filled with so

many customs, rituals, special behavior find its place in our time. The

strict nomadic life laws have created moral and ethic norm. The whole clan

and tribe shared the joys and sorrows of life, any unexpected traveler was

an honored guest. Any steppe inhabitant knew, that he was a welcome guest

and had a right to his share. This steppe tradition was strictly observed

and is still observed today by the host. Some time later this violation

merited a sort of punishment. That explains why every host regarded the

ritual of hospitality as sacred rule and welcomed guests warmly and with

all attention and kindly saw them off with good wishes.

The main traditional dish of Kazakh is besbarmak. It is mostly served

for the guests and eaten by hands (bes barmak Ц means five finger).

Besbarmak is usually cooked of fat mutton and parts of smoked horse meat

and horse delicacies like kazy and shyzhyk. The meat is boiled and

separately is boiled thin paste. Boiled parts of meat are put on the paste

and spiced with a special flavoring called tuzduk. As the custom demands

the host serves the meal in special crockey Ц tabak. The bas-tabak, which

is placed before the most honourable guests is used to serve the mutton

head, zhambas, horse meat delicacy and other fatty parts. The esteemed

guest (usually the oldest one) cuts bit and part from the head and offers

them to the other guests at the table. The secret of distribution of parts

of the meat from the head lies in traditional wishes. When given the

palate, it expresses the wish Ц Уbe wise and eloquentФ, the larynx Ц a gift

to sing, skin of forehead Ц Уbe the first among equalsФ. Meanwhile one or

two dzhigits (young man), sitting next to the esteemed guest start cutting

the boiled parts of meat to pieces and the dish is again spiced with

tuzdyk. The guests are offered to help themselves to the dish. The youth

and children usually sit at sides of the table dastarkhan. They receive

meat directly

from the elders. The custom is called asatu and symbolized the desire of

the youth to experience the long and good life the elders have experienced.

When all the meat and sorpa ( soup with large fat content) have been eaten

and drank, the most respected guest thanks the hostess on behalf of all the

guests and blesses the hosts of that house.

In our days the main features of this old ritual and table etiquette

exist, are carefully kept, followed and passes to their traditions.

Food is Symbolic.16

Throughout history, food has been used as a symbol of wealth or

gratitude, or to demonstrate position and power. In some cultures, eating

lavish and exotic meals is a sign of wealth and power, whereas eating only

the basic foods is a of sign belonging to a more common class. In some

cultures, the offer of a glass of cool, clean water is the greatest

compliment or honor one can receive. In some cultures, whenever you receive

s guest, whether for business or pleasure, you must offer them something to

eat or drink: the more lavish the offering signifies the amount of respect

or honor you give that person. Diet is not a consideration.

For centuries, food has been a key element in religious rituals. Food

was used as offering to the gods and their high priests and priestesses.

Food has been considered a form of tithing to a church or religious sect.

Certain foods such as lamp, bread, and bitter herbs are religious symbols

in some ceremonies.

The sharing of food demonstrates acceptance, friendship, family, and

love. To be invited to Уbreak breadФ with a family, in many cultures shows

respect and is a sign of friendship and acceptance. Literature is full of

examples of lovers using food to show their devotion and respect foe each

other: one of the most famous being the line from the Rubaiyal of Omar

Khayyam, У A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread Ц and ThouЕФ in the West,

chocolate and sweets have long been a symbolic exchange of affection

between lovers. So, why do we eat the things we do? First, letТs

established that not everything we like to meat is all that good for us,

unfortunately. For example, there is much debate over the value of

chocolate Ц yes, it does have some redeeming qualities aside from just

tasting wonderful.

Food as a Fad or Cult.17

Food has often found a niche for itself in popular culture. Eating or

entertaining with certain foods has often been a fad or cult. Whichever

group you associate with or aspire to be like will dictate which fad you

follow. For example, in the late У70s and 80s in the U.S., salads were the

УinФ food for the yuppie crowd (the young, upwardly-mobile group). Salad

bars (restaurants where salad is the primary food) sprang up everywhere.

There were so many types of salads, garnishes, and salad dressings that

were invented, it was impossible to keep up with them all.

Of course many people ate salads because they were on diets. Thin was

УinФ and so everyone who was УinФ or aspiring to be УinФ wanted to lose

weight. Actually, throughout most of the Т80s and 90s there has been an

obsession with dieting. Now, however, dieting is not a politically correct

word. There are so many schemes and foods out in the stores for people to

use lose weight; there are even substances that promise if you take them

you can eat all you want and still lose weight.

Aside form diets and salads, there are the foods that people eat because

their favorite athlete, musician, or actor eats that brand or kind for

food. The cultural icons over the last several years have been exploited to

promote the sale of different foods or food substitutes. Whatever Michael

Jordan, Mel Gibson, or Oprah Winfrey drink and eat, the ardent fans,

wannabes and admirers worldwide try to eat and drink. People donТt always

pay attention to how truly nutritious something is; if the in-crowed or the

cultural icon they aspire to be like eat it, they will get it. Pop culture

is a powerful force.

Food is the Staff of life.18

Regardless of how you view food, you need it to live. You need the right

kinds of food in the right amounts to have a healthy life. Your needs for

different kinds of food change as grow and mature. Everyone needs the three

key nutrients that provide the body with energy and the necessary building

blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, and protein. Unfortunately,

in our world today, not every one has access to all of these all the time.

World hanger is a global problem that needs to be addressed by all nations.

The right type and kind of foods the body needs to grow, develop, and

stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good, daily, balanced diet is key

to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you know what you eat


day? Why do you think you eat the foods you eat? Eating the right food

everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it also nourishes our spirits,

our creativity and thinking, and our language and interaction with other


What Counts as a serving?19

The amount of food that counts as a serving is listed. If you eat a large

portion, count it as more than one serving. For example, љ cup of cooked

pasta counts as one serving in the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group. If

you eat 1 cup of pasta that would be 2 servings. If you eat less than љ

cup, count it as part of a serving.

For mixed foods, do the best you can to decide the food groups and to

estimate the servings of the main ingredients. Pizza would count in the

Bread Group (crust), the Milk Group (cheese), and the Vegetable Group

(tomato). Beef stew would count in the Meat Group and Vegetable Group.

|Bread, Cereal, | | |Natural cheddar |1 љ oz |

|Rice, and Pasta | | |cheese | |

|Group | | |Processed cheese|2 oz |

|Bread |1 slice |1 | |1 љ oz |

|Hamburger roll, |1 |2 |Mozzarella, part| |

|bagel, English | | |skim |љ cup |

|muffin | | |Ricotta, part |љ cup |

|Tortilla |1 |1 |skim | |

|Rice, pasta, |љ cup |1 |Cottage cheese, |љ cup |

|cooked |3-4 |1 |4 % fat |љ cup |

|Pain crackers, |1oz |1 |Ice cream |љ cup |

|small |2 |2 |Ice milk | |

|Breakfast cereal| | |Frozen yogurt | |

| |1 large(2oz)|2 |Meat, Poultry, | |

|Pancakes, 4-in | |2 |Fish, Dry Beans,| |

|diameter |1medium |2 |Eggs, and Nuts |3 oz |

|Croissant |(2oz) |1 |Group | |

|Doughnut |1medium |1 |Lean meat, |3 oz |

|Danish |(2oz) |2 |poultry, fish, | |

|Cake, Frosted |1 average | |cooked |3 oz |

|Cookies |slice |1 |Ground beef, |2 slices (1 oz)|

|Pie, fruit, |2 medium |1 |cooked | |

|2-crust |1 average | |Chicken, with |1 (1 oz) |

|Vegetable Group |slice |1 |skin | |

|Vegetables, | |1 |Bologna |2 Tbsp (1 oz) |

|cooked |2 medium | |Dry beans and |1/3 cup (1 oz) |

|Vegetables, |љ cup |1 |peas, cooked | |

|leafy, raw | |1 |Peanut butter | |

|Vegetables, |1cup |1 |Nuts |1 tsp |

|nonleafy raw, |љ cup | |Fats, oils, and |1 Tbsp |

|chopped | |1 |Sweets |1 Tbsp |

|Potatoes, |љ cup | |Butter, |1 Tbsp |

|scalloped |љ cup |1 |margarine | |

|Potato salad |10 |1 |Mayonnaise |2 Tbsp |

|French fries | | |Salad dressing |1 tsp |

|Fruit Group |1 medium |1 |Reduced calorie |12 fl oz |

|Whole fruit: | | |salad dressing |12 fl oz |

|apple, orange. |љ cup | |Sour cream |1 tsp |

|Banana |Њ cup |1 |Sugar, jam, |љ cup |

|Fruit, raw or | |1 |jelly |1 tsp |

|canned |Љ whole |1 |Cola |1 tsp |

|Fruit juice, | |1 |Fruit drink, ade| |

|unsweetened | | | | |

|Avocado |1 cup |1 |Chocolate bar | |

|Milk, yogurt, |1 cup | |Sherbet | |

|and cheese Group|1 cup |1 |Fruit sorbet | |

| |1 cup | |Gelatin dessert | |

|Skim milk | | | | |

|Lowfat milk 2 % |8 oz | | | |

|Whole milk | | | | |

|Chocolate milk, |8oz | | | |

| | | | | |

|2 % | | | | |

|Lowfat yogurt, | | | | |

|plain | | | | |

|Lowfat yogurt, | | | | |

|fruit | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |Љ |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | |љ |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

Plan a healthy Diet

Using the food Guide Pyramid and УWhat Counts as a Serving?Ф plan a full

dayТs diet that contains the recommended number of servings for each food

group. Be sure that the meals you create are ones you would actually eat.

Food Items How Number of Total


Much servings of serving

|Bread Group | | | | |

|Vegetable Group | | | | |

|Fruit Group | | | | |

|Milk Group | | | | |

|Meat Group | | | | |

|Fats, Oils, and | | | | |

|Sweets | | | | |

Food Guide Pyramid.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid is an outline for

making daily food choices for a healthful diet. Researchers now know that

eating a healthful diet reduces the risk of heart disease, high blood

pressure, stroke, certain cancers, and the most common type of diabetes.

The pyramid shape is related to the recommended daily amounts of food

from each of five major groups and from a sixth grouping of УextrasФ. Most

people should eat more servings of foods from groups closer to the base and

fewer servings of food from groups closer to the trip.

For good health you need foods from the five major food groups shown in

the Food Guide Pyramid. At the base of the Pyramid is the Bread Group,

which includes bread, cereal, rice, and paste. On the next level are the

Vegetable Group Ц including yellow, root, and green leafy vegetables Ц and

the Fruit Group. On the third level are the Milk Group Ц which includes

milk, yogurt, and cheese Ц and the Meat Group, which includes meat,

poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts. The sixth grouping Ц Fats, Oils,

and Sweets Ц is shown at the tip of the Pyramid; these extras are grouped

together because they each should be used sparingly.

The knowledge of this theme УFoodФ makes these practical and theoretical

valuable for those who wanted to grow thin or to grow fat.

Also material of this report is incased knowledge and enriched this

theme. It is the help for English teachers and students who want to know

more than they have in their books.


. The magazine УForumФ volume 36 number 4 Oct-Dec 1998

. The book УBrush your EnglishФ E.D. Mihailova and A.Y. Romanovich, Moscow.


. The book У 1000 English topicsФ V. Kaverina and V. Boiko, Moscow, 2000

. The book У Happy English readerФ

. The book УAmerican StudiesФ V.M. Pavlotskei, St. Peterburg, 1997

. The book УThe USA history and the presentФ L. Khalilova, 1999

. The book УKazakh in briefФ G.H. Molkha, Astana

. The book УEnglish for studentsФ I.A. Klapalchenko, Mpscow, 1997



[1] From the magazine УForumФ.

[2] From the magazine УForumФ.

[3] From the magazine УForumФ.

[4] From the magazine УForumФ.

[5] From the magazine УForumФ.

[6] From the magazine УForumФ.

[7] From the magazine УEnglishФ.

[8] From the book УBrush up your EnglishФ E. D. Mihailova and A. Y.


[9] From the book У100 English topicsФ Kaverina V. And Boiko V.

[10] From the site Уwww. English for everyone.ruФ

11 From the book УHappy English readerФ

12 From the book У American StudiesФ Pavlotskei V. M. , St. Petersburg,


[11] From the book У The USA history and the presentФ L. Khalilova

[12] From the book УThe USA history and the presentФ L. Khalilova

14 From the book УThe USA history and the presentФ L. Khalilova.

15 From the book УKazakhstan in briefФ G. H. Molkha, Astana, 2002.

16 From the magazine УEnglishФ.

17 From the magazine УforumФ.

18 From the book УEnglish for studentsФ I. A. Klepalchenko.

19 From the magazine УForumФ


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