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Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine

Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine

1. Educational System in Great Britain

Types of Schools

All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they

are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are

17 or 18. Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence

tests. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age

of 11 children went to different schools in accordance of with the results

of the tests.

State schools are divided into the following types:

- Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who

show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools

now also have some technical courses.

- Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses

there are either commercial or technical.

- Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there

hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and

learn some trade.

- Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of

secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories,

machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and

art departments, commercial and domestic courses.

There are also many schools which the State doesn’t control. They are

private schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them

are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.

After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further

education. Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called

“Techs”) come from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17.

The lectures at such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at

4,45 in the afternoon.


British Schools

Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free

nursery school education before that age. Primary education takes place in

infant schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools

(from 8 to 11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle

schools replace junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years.

Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. It is

compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily

up to three years longer.

In 1965 non-selective comprehensive schools were introduced. Most local

education authorities were have now completely changed over to

comprehensive schooling.

At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several

subjects at the Ordinary level. The exam used to be conducted by eight

independent examining boards, most of them connected with the university.

This examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education

establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education

(GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the

Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE.

A GCE of Advanced (“A”) level was taken two years after the Ordinary

level exam. It was the standard for entrance to university and to many

forms of professional training. In 1988 both examinations were replaced by

the more or less uniform General Certificate of Secondary Education.

The private sector is running parallel to the state system of

education. There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most

private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents

seem prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The

reason is the believe that social advantages are gained from attending a

certain school. The most expansive day or boarding schools in Britain are

exclusive public schools like Eton college for boys and St. James’ school

for girls.


Universities and Colleges in Great Britain.

There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three

types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities),

in the 19th century universities, such as London and Manchester

universities, and the new universities. Some years ago there were also

polytechnics. After graduating from polytechnic a student got a degree, but

it was not a university degree. 31 formers polytechnics were given

university status in 1992.

Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science.

Most degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4

years (including year spent aboard). Medicine and dentistry courses are

longer (5-7 years).

Students may receive grants from the Local Education Authority to help

pay for books, accommodation, transport, and food. This grant depends on

the income of their parents.

Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence.

Students don’t usually have a job during term time because the lessons

called lectures, seminars, classes of tutorials (small groups), are full

time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings.

University life is considered «an experience». The exams are

competitive but the social life and living away from home are also

important. The social life is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties,

concerts, bars.

There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges

offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some

professions connected with medicine.


2. Educational System in the USA

General Pattern of Education in the USA

The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary

school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 8—4 plan

organization. It is proceeded, in many localities, by nursery schools and

kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional

schools. This traditional pattern, however, has been varied in many

different ways. The 6—3— 3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a

three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. Another

variation is a 6—6 plan organization, with a six-year elementary school

followed by a six-year secondary school.

American education provides a program for children, beginning at the

age of 6 and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to

18 in others.

The elementary school in the United States is generally considered to

include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system,

depending upon the organization that has been accepted for the secondary

school. It has been called the "grade school" or the "grammar school".

There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the

American school system, different types of organization and of curriculum

are tried out.

The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variation

exists also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have

school in session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30

in the afternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower

grades is often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require

some homework to be done by elementary pupils. Elementary Schools, High

Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning


Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of

Higher Learning

There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is

followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last

two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are

combined into a junior high school.

The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September

and sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from

place to place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and

attendance is compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until

the student has finished the eighth grade.

The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally

larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small

town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some

rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may

be found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all

taught by the same teacher.

Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the

elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student

studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these

subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the student

usually has classes in physical education, music, and art several times a

week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of

the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in

order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.

Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not

absolutely free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for

tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside

the state. Working one's way through college is commonplace.

Usually there is no admission examination required by a state

university for those who have finished high school within the state.

Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however,

and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or

average of high school grades.

Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known

ones such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic

requirements for entrance, including an examination.


Higher Education Institutions

It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad

fields, such as languages and literature, the social sciences, the sciences

and mathematics, and the fine arts .Many colleges require all freshmen and

sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields.

Certain Courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with

some election permitted in the other fields.

Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of

regents or a board of trustees.

The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the

president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are

headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments

according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a

professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members

of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant

professor, associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give

some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.

Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law,

engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. is pursued in professional

schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions

which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three,

or four years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required

before admission to a professional school. Three to five years of

specialized training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of

Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.


Private and State Colleges and Universities

Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of

providing a literate ministry1 for colonial churches. It was a small

institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon

became more than a theological training school2 and established itself as a

liberal arts college. The next institution of higher learning established

in the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened

in 1693 at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in the next

century, but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students

entered at the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the

curriculum, while rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards

rather secondary in nature.

Private colleges and universities were established in various states.

The first state university was the University of Virginia, founded in 1819.

Some state universities have large endowment funds1 which provide a

substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are student

fees, gifts and endowments.

In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad

fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further

subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts

program, on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college

course, or a four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or

Bachelor of Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a

lower division (which may be called the junior college), consisting of the

two first years, and the upper division, which is the last two years. The

first two years continue the general education and specialization begins in

the third year.


3. Educational System in Ukraine.

Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right

to education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. It’s ensured by

compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education

establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and

evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.

Education in Ukraine is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The

stages of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are: primary education for ages 6-

7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive,

and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of

secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay

at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together

comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of

academic subjects, such as…

After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which

offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a

technical field, or a profession.

After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a

gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take

competitive exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or

universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for

undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and

writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctoral


Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are

in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has

a number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate

and doctoral degrees.

The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough

a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to

decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial

mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All

secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been

funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying

primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying



4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class

|How do you evaluate | Like |Don’t like |Indifferent |

|the following |(number of |(number of |(number of |

| |pupils) |pupils) |pupils) |

|School | 27 | 6 | 3 |

|Subjects: | | | |

| Literature | 21 | 5 | 12 |

| Mathematics | 11 | 23 | 5 |

| History | 19 | 7 | 12 |

| Geography | 29 | 6 | 3 |

| Biology | 23 | 10 | 6 |

| English | 32 | 4 | 2 |

| Music | 25 | 12 | 2 |

| Art | 20 | 11 | 8 |

|Out-of-class activities | 24 | 4 | 11 |

|Sports/Gym classes | 22 | 13 | 4 |

|School library | 27 | 10 | 2 |

|School canteen | 23 | 3 | 13 |

|Learning to get along with | 25 | 9 | 5 |

|others | | | |

|Making friends | 34 | 0 | 5 |


5. Used Literature:

1. Internet



1. Educational System in Great Britain

. Types of Schools

. British Schools

. Universities and Colleges in Great Britain

2.Educational System in the USA

. General Pattern of Education in the USA

. Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher learning

. Higher Education Institutions

. Private and State Colleges

3. Educational System in Ukraine

4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class

5. Used Literature


Educational System

in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine.



Form 8-V

Ukrainian Grammar

School #6


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