Расширенный поиск
рефераты Главная
рефераты Астрономия и космонавтика
рефераты Биология и естествознание
рефераты Бухгалтерский учет и аудит
рефераты Военное дело и гражданская оборона
рефераты Государство и право
рефераты Журналистика издательское дело и СМИ
рефераты Краеведение и этнография
рефераты Производство и технологии
рефераты Религия и мифология
рефераты Сельское лесное хозяйство и землепользование
рефераты Социальная работа
рефераты Социология и обществознание
рефераты Спорт и туризм
рефераты Строительство и архитектура
рефераты Таможенная система
рефераты Транспорт
рефераты Делопроизводство
рефераты Деньги и кредит
рефераты Инвестиции
рефераты Иностранные языки
рефераты Информатика
рефераты Искусство и культура
рефераты Исторические личности
рефераты История
рефераты Литература
рефераты Литература зарубежная
рефераты Литература русская
рефераты Авиация и космонавтика
рефераты Автомобильное хозяйство
рефераты Автотранспорт
рефераты Английский
рефераты Антикризисный менеджмент
рефераты Адвокатура
рефераты Банковское дело и кредитование
рефераты Банковское право
рефераты Безопасность жизнедеятельности
рефераты Биографии
рефераты Маркетинг реклама и торговля
рефераты Математика
рефераты Медицина
рефераты Международные отношения и мировая экономика
рефераты Менеджмент и трудовые отношения
рефераты Музыка
рефераты Кибернетика
рефераты Коммуникации и связь
рефераты Косметология
рефераты Криминалистика
рефераты Криминология
рефераты Криптология
рефераты Кулинария
рефераты Культурология
рефераты Налоги
рефераты Начертательная геометрия
рефераты Оккультизм и уфология
рефераты Педагогика
рефераты Политология
рефераты Право
рефераты Предпринимательство
рефераты Программирование и комп-ры
рефераты Психология
рефераты Радиоэлектроника

Career in hotel industry

Career in hotel industry

Министерство образования Российской Федерации

Южный институт менеджмента

Кафедра иностранных языков


На тему: How to make career in hotel industry.


Выполнила студентка, 2 курс


Косова Тамара

Руководитель: Хохлова Лариса


Краснодар 2003



I. The hotel complex as an object of the management

1. The main services of the hotel.

2. Classification of the hotels.

3. The peculiarites of the hotel service.

II. The structure of the management in the lodging industry.

III. The main methods of the management of the hospitality business.

IV. The manager’s role in the lodging industry. Manager’s functions and


V. Decision-making – key of manager career.

VI. The role of the communication in the manager’s career.

VII. The management of time.

VIII. Where one can begin the manager’s career.

IX. Conclusion.

I. Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such as

companies, government, departments, unions, hospitals, schools and the

like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard

of living and our quality of life. In all these organizations, there are

people carrying out the work of a manager. The role of the manager is

particularly significant in such social sphere as the lodging industry.

The lodging industry is the most important element of the social

sphere. It plays the leading part in the increase of the public production

and accordingly in the uplifting of living standards.

II. One can designate the hotel as an enterprise rendering service to

the people, which are out of doors. The service of the placing and the

nourishment is the leading one at the hotel.

1) The hotel apartments are the basic element of the placing service.

They are intended for the rest, sleeping and work of the guests. In

additional the placing service includes the service, which is done by the

personal of the hotel. These are reception and official registration of the

guests, cleaning the rooms and others.

The nourishment consists of different processes:

. process of production (preparation of dishes),

. trade process (sale of the food products),

. service process (service of the guests by the waiters at the

restaurant, in the rooms).

The additional service includes swimming-pools, conference halls, hair-

dresser’s, massage-room and many other things. The hotel is distinguished

by the additional service among other hotels.

Therefore this service is very important by the forming of the

attractiveness of the hotel.

Among the main services of the hotel one can also distinguish the

reserving the place, the facilities, the receiving and the service of the

exploitation of the apartment fund.

2) The service of the nourishment, the placing service and the

additional service are formed different at the hotels. And so one can

designate several types of the hotels.

The first class hotels are usually situated in the center of the

city. The skilled staff ensures the high level of the service. The clients

of this kind of the hotel are businessmen, participants of the conferences

and other rich men.

The health-resort hotel is situated in the health-resort country. It

includes the medical service and the dietary nourishment.

The motel is located near the motor roads and in the suburbs. The

clients of the motel are tourists, particularly motor tourers.

The middle class hotels render the broad service. The prizes depend on

the situation of the hotel. The leading types of the hotels are the

business and health-resort ones, because 50% of the journeys are made with

business purpose, and holiday are treatment purpose determines 40% of the


The hotels are classified by the level of the comfort, the capacity

of the hotel, the purpose of the hotel, the situation of the hotel, the

duration of the work, the providing with the nourishment, the duration of

the stay at the hotel, the level of the prices.

3) The peculiarities of the hotel service are:

1) The processes of the production and the consumption are not

synchronous. This means that several kinds of service do not connect

with the presence of the client (cleaning the rooms).

2) Limited possibility of the keeping.

3) Urgency of the service. The problem concerning the service must be

solved very quickly. The urgency and the situation of the hotel are

the most important factors by the choice of the hotel.

4) The broad participation of the staff in the production process.

Personal service cannot be mechanized or automated. Some technologies

are being instituted to speed up routine tasks, but the human element

is the determining one of the hospitality business. Therefore the

problem of the standardization is significant in the lodging industry.

The standards of the service are worked out at many hotels. They are

the rules of the service, which guarantee the level of quality of all

operations. These are the time of the official registration, the

knowledge of foreign languages and the out-word appearance of the

personal. The work at the hotel brings the employee into contact with

people from all walks of life. Guests will include the wealthy and the

poor, engaging and obnoxious. Each guest offers the employee an

opportunity learns more about human nature. Employees not only have

direct responsibility for guest service, the also have the benefit of

witnessing the guest’s satisfaction. The managers generally need more

hands-on experience before assuming managerial positions. The skills

of understanding, motivation and directing people can best be

developed through experience.

5) Seasonal demand for the hotel service. It has an influence on the

loading of the hotel.

6) Interdependency between the hotel service and the purpose of the


III. The structure of the management in the lodging industry

consists of administrative secnating.

In the lodging industry there are three types of the structure:

1) Lineal structure. Every section has the manager who is

responcible for the activities of this section. This manager submits to

the higher manager. The advantages of this structure are the clear

responsibility, the simplicity of the management. But the manager must be

very skilled to manage all processes. Besides that there are too many

contacts with the subordinamper the work of the manager.

2) The functional structure. The main idea is that the specialists

perform the separate functions and they are united in departments. The

advantages of the functional structure are the high competence of the

specialists, standardization and the programming of the processes. The

main problem of this structure is the excessive centralization.

3) Lineal-functional. It includes the special sections by the

lineal managers. Among the advantages one can account the co-operation of

the experts and the better preparation of the decisions and plans. The

defects of this structure are the unclear responsibility and the absence

of the connections between departments.

In addition to the usual management positions, multi-unit

companies may have area, district, and regional and/or corporate-level

management. There may be several separate departments operating at a

hotel, requiring frequent communication among staff members to co-

ordinate their activities.

The administrative structure of the hotel depends on its purpose,

capacity and the specific character of the guests.

IV. Among the main methods of the management in the lodging

industry we can number economic, administrative and social psychological


The leading idea of the economic method is to make such kind of the

conditions to the staff, in which it can take into account at most the

consequences of its administrative and production activities.

The administrative method is based on the directive instructions.

The main purpose of the social-psychological method is the forming of the

positive climate in the collective. The success of the activities of the

manager depends in the main on his ability to work with people and on

right using all these methods.

V. A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in 1916 a classic

definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is “to forecast

and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.” This

definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on

management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about

“command”, they say a manager must “motivate” or “direct” and “lead”

other workers.

Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s functions is useful.

However, in most companies, the activities of a manager depend on the

level at which he/she is working. Top managers, such as directors, will

be more involved in long planning, policy making and the relations of the

company. These strategy decisions are part of the planning function

mentioned by Fayol.

One the other hand, middle management is help an organization to

run efficiently. It is urgent order or sorting out a technical problem.

Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating,

coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their


Managers in the lodging industry perform five basic operations.

. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what these

should be and how the organization can achieve them. For this

task they need analytical ability.

. Secondly, managers organize. They must decide how the

resources of the company are to be used, how the work is to

be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select

people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only need

analytical ability but also understanding of human beings.

. The third task is to motivate and communicate effectively.

They must be able to get people to work as a team, and to be

as productive as possible.

To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all levels

of the

organization – their superiors, colleagues and subordinates. To succeed

in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is

measurement. Having set standards, managers have to measure the

performance of the organization and of its staff in relation to those

standards. Measuring requires analytical ability. Finally, managers

develop people more productive and to grow as human beings. They make

them bigger and richer persons.

VI. In carrying out management functions, such as planning,

organising, motivating and controlling, a manager will be continually

making decisions. Decision-making is a key of management responsibility

and career.

Some decisions are of the routine kind. They are decisions which

are made quickly. Because a manager is experienced, he knows what to do

in certain situations. He does not have to think too much before taking


Other decisions are often intuitive ones. They are not really

rational. The manager may have a gut feeling that a certain course of

action is the right one.

Many decisions are more difficult to make since they involve

problem-solving. Very often they are strategic decisions which will

affect the future direction of the enterprise. To make good decisions the

manager should be able to select rationally a course of action. In

practice, decisions are usually made in circumstances which are not

ideal. They must be made quickly, with insufficient information. It is

probably rare that a manager can make an entirely rational decision.

When a complex problem arises, the manager has to collect facts

and weigh up courses of action. He must be systematic in dealing with the

problem. A useful approach to this sort of decision-making is as follows:

the process consists of four phases:

a) Defining the problem;

b) Analyzing and collecting information;

c) Working out options;

d) Deciding on the best solution.

As a first step, the manager must identify and define the problem.

And it is important that he does not mistake the symptoms of a problem

for the real problem he must solve. At this early stage the manager must

also take into account the rules and principles of the company which may

affect the final decision. These factors will limit the solution of the


The second step is to analyze the problem and decide what

additional information is necessary before a decision can be taken.

Getting the facts is essential in decision-making. However, as already

mentioned, the manager will rarely have all the knowledge he needs. This

is one reason why making decisions involves a degree of risk. It is the

manager’s job to minimize that risk.

Once the problem has been defined and the facts collected, the

manager should consider the options for solving it. This is necessary

because there are usually several ways of solving a problem. The

enterprise might be modernized or service might be improved, for example.

Before making a decision, the manager will carefully access the

options, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Having

done this, he will have to take a decision. Perhaps he will compromise

using more than the option.

VII. Communications in excellent companies are different from those

in other companies. Excellent companies have “open communications”.

People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. The

companies do everything possible to ensure that staff meets easily and


One problem with communication is that we do not, in fact,

communicative as effectively as we think we do. This is important for

managers. It suggests that, when giving instructions, managers must make

sure that those instructions have been understood and interpreted


A breakdown in communications is to happen if there are some

kinds of social distance between people. In organizations people may have

difficulty communicating if they are different in status, or if one

person has a much higher position than the other. It is risky to tell the

truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy – they may not like what they

hear and hold it against you. For this reason staffs often “filter”


One way of reducing social distance – and improving communications

– is to cut down on status symbols. It is possible, for example, to have

a common dining-room for all staff.

Physical surroundings and physical distance limit or encourage

communication. The physical layout of an office must be carefully


Another important barrier to communication is selective

perception. This means that people perceive things in different ways. The

world of the sender is not the same as the world of the receiver. A

manager will say something but the employee will interpret his meaning


Communication problems will arise, from time to time, in the best-

run companies. However, to minimize such problems, managers must remember

one thing. Communication should be a two-way process. Managers should

encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what the managers are

saying. The most useful question a manager can ask is “Did you understand


VIII. In the lodging industry it is important that managers should

be effective. They must be able to achieve their objectives. The problem

is that there are so many pressures on managers, reducing their

efficiency. The managers find that they do not have enough time to devote

to the really important jobs. They find that other people take up a lot

of their time, so that they have little time of their own.

Effective managers learn how to manage their time. They cut out

unproductive activities. They never forget that time cannot be replaced.

Before being able to control his time, the manager must find out

how he is actually using it. He must know where it goes. The best way to

do this is to record how he uses time. One way of logging time is to note

down all the activities and indicate how long they took. The manager can

ask questions such as: Are some of the things I am doing wasting time?

Should I be spending more time on certain activities? Knowing how to

spend time is an essential skill of a manager.

IX. People entering the lodging industry frequently wonders whether

it is better to begin their careers in a small or large hotel. What

branch of hotel operation is the best to start in after graduation? Where

you start is probably less important than how well you work and whether

you make the most of opportunities. It is important to learn something

about all phases of hotel operation. You may prefer to work first in

those departments you know least about. Then with some exposure to all

areas, you can begin to focus on your areas of interest.

X. We must not forget that the successful managers are necessarily

people who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses, but

must bring “character” to the job. They are people of integrity, who will

look for that quality in others.


1) Is the lodging industry the most important element of the social


2) Must the manager bring “character” to the job?

3) Why is the hotel distinguished by the additional service among

other hotels?

4) What main methods of the management can we number in the lodging


5) Is the administrative method based on the directive instructions or

is the economic one?

6) What kind of operations do managers perform in the hospitality


7) How must the manager use his time?

8) Why do the communication play the main role in the manager’s


9) Is the decision-making the key of the manager’s career?

10) How can one start his manager’s career?


© 2011 Все права защищены