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British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of

individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole.

Compulsory schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and

16, but some pupils remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare

for further higher education. Post shool education is organized

flaxebly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic

and vacational education and to continue studying through out


Administration of state schools is decentralised. The

department of education and science is responsible for national

education policy, but it doesn\'t run any schools, if doesn\'t

employ teachers, or prescribe corricular or textbooks. All shools

are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law

only one subject is compulsary. That is religious instruction.

Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in

nursery schools or in infant\'s classes in primary schools.

Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds

and the small proportions attend schools wholy independent. Most

independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing

schools is growing.

Education within the mantained schools system usually

comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary

schools are subdevided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and

junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant schools are informal and

children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers

and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their

work with the same class teacher exept for PT and music. The work

is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.

The junior stage extence over four years. Children have set

pirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography

nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were

often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities.

The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in

the D stream. Till reccantly most junior shool children had to

seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an

arithmetic paper and an entelligent test.

According to the results of the exam children are sent to

Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools.

So called comprehansive schools began to appear after World

War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education

for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given

in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.

By the law all children must receive full-time education

between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a

school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the

sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually

subdevided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The corricular is

narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.

The main examinations for secondary school pupils are

general certeficate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate

of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at

two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A


Candidats set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE

level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE

level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the

pupils who are of everage abilities of their age.


What I would like to become? This question pasels me

greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest.

I think that nearly all the professions are very important in

life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult,

because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must

consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same

time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples

needs in one profession or another.

The end of school is the beginning of an independent life,

the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass

that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will

help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every

opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education

received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or

works, others want to go into construction: to take part in

building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work

and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society

and your own personal interest are offered in the sfere of the

services transport, communications and many others.

I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I

like this profession because it very interest.


Speaking about art gallereys of London we should first of all

mention The national gallery, The national portret galerey and

The tate gallery. I would like to tell you about National portret

gallery and about Tate gallery.

The national gallery houses one of the richest and most

extensive collections of painting in the world. It stands to the

north of the Trafalgar Square. the gallerey was desighned by

William Wilkins and build in 1834-37. The collection covers all

schools and periods of painting, but is a specially famous for

it\'s examples of Rembrant and Rubents. The british schools is

only moderately represented as the national collections are

shared with the Tate gallerey. The National gallerey was founded

in 1824 when the government bought the collection of John

Angerstein which included 38 paintings.

The Tate gallery houses the national collection of british

painting from the 16-th century to the present day. It is also

the national gallerey for modern art, including painting and

sculpture made in Britain, Europe, America and other countries.

It was opened in 1897 as the national gallerey of british art. It

owes it\'s establishment to Suie Henritate who built the gallerey

and gave his own collection of 65 painting.


Until reccently the history of the english theatre has been

build around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to

find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There

are no permanent staff in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed

for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly

for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws

the odious and pays it\'s way.

Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an

follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an

advanced (bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the

spectators occupy them on the principal: first come - first

served. And ancient times plays were acted inside churches and

later on the market places.

The first theatre in England \"The Blackfries\" build in 1576,

and \"The Globe\" build in 1599, which is closely connected with

William Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of

all mention \"The English National theatre\",\"The Royal Shakespeare

company\" and \"Covent Garden\".

\"Covent Garden\" used to be a fashionable promenade - it was,

before then, a convent garden - but when it became overrun with

flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people

moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as \"St.

Jame\'s Square\".

The first \"Covent Garden theatre\" was build in 1732. It was

burnt down in 1808 and rebuild exactly a year after. It opened in

September 1809, with Shakespeare\'s \"Macbeth\". Since the middle of

the last century \"Covent Garden\" became exclusively devoted to


Now \"Covent Garden\" in busier than ever, it is one of the

few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it

employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal



hundred years to establish a national

theatre company. It\'s first director from 1962 was Lawrence

Olivier. This is the first state theatre Britain has ever had. A

special building for it was opened in 1976. It has three theatres

in one: \"The Oliver theatre\", the biggest is for the main

classical repertoire; \"The Lyttilton\", a bit smaller is for new

writing and for visiting foreigh countries and \"The Cottesloe

theatre\", the smallest is used for experimental writing and

productions. \"The Royal Shakespeare company\" are devided between

the country and the capital and it\'s produces plays mainly by

Shakespeare and his contempraries when it performs is \"Stratford

-on-Avon\", and modern plays in it\'s two auditoria in the Cities,

Barbican centre.


For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of

theatres. The birth plays of the historic \"Bolshoy\", \"Maly\" and

\"Moscow Art\" theatres the city has been and steel is a centre for

the development exploretary modern ideas in the dramatic art and

is famous for it\'s great number of highlygifted, interesting

directors, actors, playwrigts and artists.

Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams

of theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to

developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by

Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and

others. The discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today

exists due to experience and triumphs of preceding generations.

I\'d like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre. The magestic

building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in

Moscow\'s central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the

leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and

choreographers in it\'s company.

The Bolshoi traces it\'s history to 1776 when a standing

opera company was organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in

Bolshoi theatre was opera \"life of tsar\" (now \"Ivan Susanin\").At

later times operas by Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin,

Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rubinstein were produced here.

At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas

and ballets by West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber,

Verdi and others.

The bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the

world\'s finest. This is equally true of it\'s brilliant realistic

style of perfomance and repertoire.


One of my favorite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch

master, one of the supreme geneuses in the history of art. To

this day the art of Rembrant remains one of the most profound

witness of the progress of the soul in it\'s earthly pilgrimage

towards the realisation of higher destiny. The son of the

prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He

studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting.

His rapid sugsess promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631.

In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection

of paintings and rarities. The universal artist dealt with many

world subjects. Rembrant created a number of portraits and some

group portraits which were traditional to the Dutch art. The best

of them are \"Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp\" and \"The night watch\".

In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several

financial troubles. At that period he painted \"The Polish Rider\",

which is an allegory of the man\'s earthly journey.

Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant

painted his famous \"Return of the Prological son\", which stands

at the ultimate peak of Cristian spirituality, illuminating the

relationship of the self to the eternity.

The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted

\"Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir\", \"The Saint Family\".

Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in

poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes

Rembrant from his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest

artist of the world.


Speaking about art gallereys of Moscow we must mention the

most famous gallereys.

The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture

gallereys in Russia. It takes it\'s name from it\'s founder Pavel

Tretyakov, a Moscow mercant. In the 19\'th century Tretyakov began

to collect russian paintings. He visitet all the exibitions and

art studios and bought the best pictures. Little by little

Tretyakov extended his interests and began to collect earlier

Russian paintings. In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St. Peterburg to

the public, 11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow.

Since then the gallerey has received hundred paintings from oter

museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallerey reflects

the whole history of Russian paintings from 11\'th century to the

present day.

Also I\'d like to tell you about state pushkin museum of fine

art. The building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898

- 1912 to house a museum of fine art, founded of initiative of

professor Ivan Cvetayev. Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin

museum of fine art. It has one of the worlds largest ancient

collections of european art. Now the picture gallerey has over 2

thousands works of various schools of painting which enaibous us

to understand and appreciate the variaty of staills over the


The Pushkin museum pereodically hald\'s exibition of the art

of various countries and of individual outstanding artist of past

and present.


Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else;

the chief theatres ,music halls and cinemas are in the West End.

If you are staying in London for a few days, you\'ll have no

difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable

evening. You\'ll find opera, balley, comedy, drama, revue, musical

comedy and variety. Films are shown in the cinemas during the

greatest part of the day.

The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the

circle and the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of

all the gallery where the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course,

are the most expensive. Most theatres and music halls have good

orchestras with popular conductors.

You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least

once during the season if you can. There you can get the best of

everything - an exellent orchestras, famous conductors, celebated

singers and well dressed audience. But, of course, if you are not

fond of music and singing, won\'t interest you.

At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous

English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are

magnificently staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything

being done of the most lavish scale. Choose a good play, and

you\'ll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the moment the curtain goes

up to the end of the last act. Get your seats beforehand, either

at the box-office of theatre itself or at one of the agencies.

When you go to a theatre, you\'ll probably want to seat as near to

the stage as possible. But if you are at the cinema, you may

prefer to seat some distance from the screen. In fact, I would

say, the further away the better.


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